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  4. 动词短语可数名词(单数名词,复数名词)系动词动名词一般过去时

短文改错。 Some old people were talking the young and the old.They all1. ________agreed with old people w

一、题文

短文改错。
     Some old people were talking the young and the old.They all            1. ________
agreed with old people were cleverer than the young.Then one              2. ________
of the old man said, "But young man are stronger than the old."              3. ________
All of them agreed that this was true, and James didn't think                   4. ________
so. "No, I'm as strong as I am in my young days," he said.                     5. ________
"What do you mean?" asked his friends. "How can that is true?"            6. ________
"Well," said James."In one corner of my field has                                  7. ________
a big stone (石头). When I was a young man, I tried to move it,           8. ________
but I can't. I was very strong at that time.Now I'm an                            9. ________
old man, I still can't move it."                                                             10. ________

考点提示:动词短语,可数名词(单数名词,复数名词),系动词,动名词,一般过去时

二、答案

1. talking→talking about
2. with→that
3. man→men
4. and→but
5. am→was
6. is→be
7. has→there is
8. to move→moving
9. can't→couldn't
10. I→but I

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《短文改错。 Some old people were talking the young and the old.They all1. ________agreed with old people w》这道题主要考你对 动词短语可数名词(单数名词,复数名词)系动词动名词一般过去时 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:动词短语,可数名词(单数名词,复数名词),系动词,动名词,一般过去时

考点名称:动词短语
  • 动词短语:
    由动词和动短语成,或以动词为中心,功能同动词的短语叫动词短语,动词短语是动词的一种固定搭配形式,动词短语的搭配可分为下列四种基本类型。
  • 动词短语搭配形式:
    1.动词+副词
    ①作及物动词,例: 
    He brought up his children strictly.   
    从以上的例句中可以看出,在“动词+副词”的词组中宾语位置有两种情况:
    宾语如是名词,则可置于副词后面,亦可置于动词和副词之间。
    而如果宾语是代词,只能置于动词后面,即动词和副词之间。   
    ②作不及物动词,例:    
    Something unexpected has turned up. 出现了令人意外的情况。(turn up=appear)   
    ③既可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,例:   
    The barrel of gunpowder blew up.(不及物)火药桶爆炸了。   
    The soldiers blew up the bridge.(及物)士兵们把桥炸毁了。

    2.动词+介词 
    动词与介词构成的词组在词义上相当于一个及物动词,宾语总是在介词后面,例:
    I don’t much care for television.我不很喜欢电视。(care for=like)

    3.动词+副词+介词
    在这类动词短语中,动词、副词、介词紧密结合,是动副词组和动介词组的合成体,词义上相当于一个及物动词。
    它兼有以上两类短语动词的特点,但宾语总是位于介词之后,例: 
    We must work hard to make up for lost time.我们必须努力工作来弥补失去的时间。(make up for=compensate)

    4.动词+名词
    这类动词短语中的常见动词是have,take,give,make等,
    后面的名词通常是从动词转化而来的动作名词,并表达了短语动词的真正意义,例:    
    Let’s have another try.让我们再试一下。(have a try=v.try)  

    5.动词+名词+介词    
    这类动词短语只用作及物动词。名词前可加形容词说明程度,宾语总是位于介词之后,
     例:Keep an eye on the baby while I am out.我不在家时请照看一下小孩子。   

    6.be+形容词(包括过去分词作形容词)+介词    
    这类动词短语也相当于及物动词,宾语位于介词后面,形容词是短语动词的真正词义,
    例:I know he is slow at understanding,but you have to be patient with him. 我知道他理解力差,但你得对他耐心些。
  • 动词短语与短语动词:
    <?xml:namespace prefix = "o" ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />一、短语动词
    (1)短语动词常常是两个词(一个动词+一个副词性小品)构成,如:wake up , get up ,turn out 等。

    (2)同一个动词后面可以有不同的副词性小品词,构成不同意义的短语动词。如:He turn on the radio .Bob turned out smiling.

    (3)短语动词用法普遍,尤其在非正式语言中:

    我们可以说 He awoke late the following morning .但这太正式了。

    我们通常说 He woke up late the following morning .


    短语动词的类型

    Here is a page from Mr Jones` diary :

    Monday ,February 5th.

    *有些短语动词不带宾语:

    The car broke down .Cigarette prices are going up.

    *多数主短语动词可以带宾语,宾语通常在副词性小品词的前或后:

    动词+副词性小品词+宾语 动词+宾语+副词性小品词

    I rang up a garage. I rang a garage up.

    如果宾语较长,则通常放在副词之后:

    I filled in an application form.(不说 I filled an application form in .)

    如果宾语是代词,其结构通常如下:

    动词+代词+副词性小品词

    I put it down.(不说 I put down it .)

    *有些短语动词是由三个词构成的(动词+副词性小品词+介词),这样,宾语就只能放在介词后面:

    I don`t get on with the people at work.

    短语动词由动词加上介词或副词小品词构成。比如:
    1. 由动词break构成的常见短语动词有:
    break away (from) 突然逃离;断绝往来,脱离;改掉,破除
    break down (机器等)坏了;(计划等)失败;(谈话等)中断;(健康等)变坏;感情失去控制
    break in 突然进来,强行进入;插嘴,打岔;训练,使适应
    break into 强行进入;突然…起来;打断,插嘴;占用时间
    break off 停止讲话;暂停,休息;(使)折断
    break out (火灾、战争等)突然发生,爆发
    break through 突破;克服,征服;强行穿过;(太阳等)从云层里出来
    break up 解散,驱散;(学校等)放假;结束,破裂;击碎;绝交
    break with 与…绝交,与…决裂
    2. 又如由bring构成的常用短语动词有:
    bring about 引起,实现,导致
    bring (a)round 使改变观点或看法;使苏醒;顺便把某人带来串门
    bring back 送还;使想起,使恢复
    bring down 击落;打死,打伤;使倒下;降低
    bring forth 产生,引起,结果
    bring in 收获;获利;介绍,引进;聘请;逮捕
    bring off 从船上救出;设法做成
    bring on 带来,引起;促使生长;帮助提高
    bring out 取出,拿出;显示出,使出来;出版
    bring over 说服,使改变(思想等)
    bring through 使度过(困难,危机等)
    bring together 使和解
    bring up 提出,提起;抚养,培养;呕吐

    二、动词短语
    动词短语由动词加上宾语或状语构成。如:
    break a glass 打破一个玻璃杯
    break one’s leg 摔断腿
    break a window 打破窗户
    break the rules 违反规定
    break a bad habit 改掉坏习惯
    break the world record 打破世界记录
    bread easily 容易断
    break to pieces 破成碎片
    bring a book 带来一本书
    bring sb sth 给某人带来某物
    bring sb great satisfaction 给某人带来极大的快慰
    bring death and famine 导致死亡和饥荒

  • 初中英语动词短语整理:
    1. break
    break down破坏,出毛病,拆开
    break off暂停,中断
    break in破门而入, 打断
    break into破门而入,突然…起来
    break out爆发
    break away from打破陈规;奋力挣脱;放弃习惯
    break through 出现,突破
    break up打碎,拆散, 分裂、分解

    2. call
    call at a place (车船等)停靠;到某地拜访。
    call away 叫走,叫开…;转移(注意力等)。
    call back唤回; 回电话;
    call for需要,要求
    call for sth (sb) 喊着叫某人来,喊着叫人取来某物
    call in 叫进,请进; 找来,请来;来访;收回
    call off取消; 叫走,转移开
    call (up)on sb 拜访或看望某人
    call sb sth 为某人叫某物
    call (up)on sb to do sth
    叫(请)某人做某事
    call up给…打电话;  想起,回忆起; 召集,应召入伍   
    call out大喊,高叫; 叫出去

    3. come
    come down下跌,落,降,传下来   
    come in进来  
    come out出版,结果是
    come on来临/ 快点   
    come along一道来,赶快
    come over走过来   
    come up发芽,走近     
    come back回来   
    come from来自,源自

    4. cut
    cut down砍倒,削减  
    cut up连根拔除,切碎

    5. die
    die of死于(疾病,饥饿,寒冷,情感原因)
    die from死于(外界原因)    
    die out绝种

    6. fall
    fall behind落后 
    fall down掉下,跌倒
    fall into 落入;陷入
    fall off 从。。。掉下
    fall out与。。。争吵

    7. go
    go along沿着。。。。走
    go through通过,经受
    go over复习,检查                  
    go up(价格)上涨,建造起来               
    go against违反  
    go away离开
    go by时间过去                      
    go down降低,(日、月)西沉
    go on(with)继续进行                  
    go out外出,熄灭                  
    go off发出响声

    8. get
    get down下来,记下,使沮丧         
    get on进展,进步,穿上,上车           
    get off脱下,下车
    get away逃跑,逃脱,去休假
    get over克服,从疾病中恢复  
    get along with进展,相处
    get up起床                              
    get into (trouble) 陷入困境中              
    get back取回,收回                      
    get out 出去
    get to 到达。。。

    9. give
    give away赠送,泄露,出卖        
    give out发出,疲劳,分发,      
    give in (to sb.) 屈服
    give up放弃,让(座位)

    10. hand
    hand in交上,提交
    hand out分发    

    11.hold
    hold on to…继续,坚持
    hold up举起,使停顿
    hold on别挂电话,等,坚持     

    12. keep       
    keep up with跟上
    keep out 不使。。。进入              
    keep from克制,阻止
    keep away from避开,不接近,
    keep on继续,坚持下来
    keep down 使。。。处于低水平                 

    13.knock
    knock at/on敲
    knock into撞到某人身上                   

    14. look
    look up查找,向上看 
    look through翻阅,浏览     
    look after/ at / for 照顾/看/寻找
    look out(for)当心                                  
    look about / around/round四下查看
    look forward to盼望                           

    15. make
    make up编造,打扮,组成           
    make into / of / from 制成           

    16.pass     
    pass by经过              
    pass down(on)…to传给

    17. pay
    pay back还钱,报复 
    pay for付钱,因…得到报应  

    18. pick
    pick up拾起,接人,站起,收听,
    pick out挑选,辨认,看出  

    19. put
    put up张贴,举起,   
    put out伸出,扑灭            
    put off推迟               
    put into放进,翻译
    put away放好,存钱           
    put down记下,平息
    put on穿戴,上映,              
    put aside放到一边         
    put back放回

    20. stand
    stand out 突显,引人注目
    stand up 起立,站起来
    38.其它常用词组
    wake up 醒,唤醒,弄醒
    stay up 不睡觉;熬夜
    depend on依靠;取决于
    worry about为。。。担忧
    laugh at嘲笑。。。
    begin with以。。。开始
    mix up混合、搀和
    major in 主修
    grow up成长
    open up 打开,张开;开发
    end up到达或来到某处; 达到某状态
    throw away 丢弃。。。
    ask for要求。。。
    wait for等待。。。
    agree with同意。。。
    find out(经研究或询问)获知某事
    send out 发出,放出,射出
    search for 搜索,搜查
    chop down 砍到
    have.. on 穿着。。。
    step out of 跨步走出
    drop out of 从。。。掉出
    happen to 发生在。。。
    belong to属于
    arrive in /at到达。。。
    try on试穿。。。
    vote on对。。。进行投票
    strech out伸展。。。
    hang out闲逛
    leave for离开前往
    sell out 卖完、售完
    show up 出席;露面

    21. run
    run after追逐,追捕   
    run away逃跑  
    run off跑掉,迅速离开       
    run out of用完

    22. set
    set up建立       
    set off 激起,引起      

    23. take
    take after 与…相像
    take off脱掉,起飞  
    take away拿走  
    take up从事,占用(时间空间)   
    take down记录,取下       
    take back收回
    take pride in以… ……为自豪,
    take the place of 代替

    24. think
    think of想起,考虑,对…看法   
    think out(自然)想出办法  
    think up想出(设计出、发明、编造)
    think about考虑      
    think over仔细考虑      

    25. turn
    turn off / on打开                  
    turn to翻到,转向,求助
    turn down调低,拒绝               
    turn back返回,转回去
    turn round转过身来                 
    turn up向上翻,出现,音量调大                     

    26. care
    care about 担心,关心;在乎,介意
    care for 关心,关怀,照顾

    27. clean
    clean up 把…打扫干净,把…收拾整齐
    clean out 清除;把…打扫干净

    28.learn
    learn about 获悉,得知,认识到
    learn from  从/向。。。学习

    29. fight
    fight for..争取获得…
    fight against 争取克服、战胜…
    fight with…与。。。搏斗/战斗

    30. dream
    dream of梦想,想橡
    dream about 梦到。。。

    31. work
    work for 为。。工作
    work out 产生结果;发展;成功

    32. argue
    argue with …与。。。争论
    argue about..争论。。。

    33. complain
    complain to 向。。抱怨
    complain about抱怨。。。

    34. hear
    hear of 听说,得知
    hear about听到。。。的事,听到。。的话
    hear from接到。。。的信

    35. talk
    talk about 讨论。。。
    talk with/to..和。。。讨论

    36. live
    live in 住在。。。
    live on 以。。。为主食

  •  

考点名称:可数名词(单数名词,复数名词)
  • 可数名词:
    是指能以数目来计算,可以分成个体的人或东西;
    因此它有复数形式,当它的复数形式在句子中作主语时,句子的谓语也应用复数形式。
  • 名词单数变复数的规则:
    情况构成方法例词读音
    一般情况在词尾加-sdesk→desks
    map→maps
    -s在清辅音后发/s/
    day→days
    girl→girls
    -s在元音和浊辅音后发/z/
    以s,x,ch,sh结尾的词在词尾加-esbus→buses box→boxes watch→watches fish→fishes-es发/iz/音
    以辅音字母加-y结尾的词变y为i再加-esfamily→families
    factory→factories
    party→patries
    -ies发/iz/音
    以元音字母加-y结尾的词在词尾加-sday→days
    boy→boys
    key→keys
    -s发/z/音
    以f或fe结尾的词变f或fe为v再加-esknife→knives
    life→lives
    wife→wives
    half→halves
    -ves发/vz/音
    以辅音字母加-o结尾的词在词尾加-espotato→potatoes
    tomato→tomatoes
    hero→heroes
    -es发/z/音
    以元音字母加-o结尾的词在词尾加-sradio→radios
    zoo→zoos
    -s发/z/音
    巧记以f\\fe结尾的可数名词复数
    妻子骑牛拿起刀,wife,calf,knife ↑
    追得贼狼满街跑,thief,wolf →→→变f或fe为v,再加es
    碰倒架子丧己命,shelf,self,life ↓
    手帕树叶半空飘。handkerchief,leaf,half ↓
  • 名词复数的不规则变化:
    1.不规则形式:
    child→children(儿童)
    man→men(男人)
    woman→women (女人)
    an Englishman→two Englishmen(英国人)
    foot→feet(脚)
    tooth→teeth(牙)
    mouse→mice(老鼠)
    ox →oxen(公牛)
    goose→geese(鹅)

    2.单复同形:
    deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese, species,means,Swiss
    除人民币,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。
    如:a dollar,two dollars; a meter,twometers

    3.集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数:
    people police cattle是复数
    (OK :a person,a policeman,ahead of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss )
    (Error:a people,a police,a cattle )
    表示国民总称时,作复数用。
    (The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。)

    4.以s结尾,仍为单数的名词
    maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。
    news是不可数名词。

    5.表示由两部分构成的东西,
    glasses(眼镜) trousers (长裤) clothes(衣服)
    若表达具体数目,要借助数量词pair(对,双)a pair of glasses  two pairs of trousers suit(套)

    6.另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思
    goods (货物) waters (水域) fishes (各种鱼)
  • 可数名词变复数的几种形式: 
    1) 单数名词加s: students, apples, bags, trees, books, brothers.   
    2) 以s、x、sh、ch结尾的名词加es: glasses, boxes, brushes, matches.  
    3) 以辅音字母加y结尾的名词,变y为i加es: cities, babies, enemies.   
    4) 以f或fe结尾的名词,多数变f为v加es: wives, knives.但有些词只加s: roofs,proofs, chiefs.  
    5) 以o结尾的名词,有些加es: Negroes, heroes, tomatoes, potatoes.  其它加s: radio s, zoos, pianos, photos.   
    6) 不规则名词:foot→feet, goose→geese, tooth→teeth, child→children, man→men, woman→women, mouse→mice.
    7) 单复数同形的名词:sheep,fish,dee.
    注意:fish表示种类时,也用fishes这样的形式。
考点名称:系动词
  • 系动词
    亦称连系动词。作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语,亦称补语(形容词),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。
  • 系动词的分类:
    1)状态系动词
    用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如:
    He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)
    2)持续系动词
    用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如:
    He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。
    This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。
    3)表像系动词
    用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如:
    He looks tired. 他看起来很累。
    He seems (to be) very sad. 他看起来很伤心。
    4)感官系动词
    感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如:
    This kind of cloth feels very soft.
    这种布手感很软。
    This flower smells very sweet.
    这朵花闻起来很香。
    5)变化系动词
    这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.
    例如:
    He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。
    She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。
    6)终止系动词
    表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如:
    The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。
    The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。
    His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)
  • 系动词使用的注意事项:
    系动词本身有一定的词义,不能单独作
    谓语,后面必须与表语连用。复习系动词时,必须注意以下几个问题:<?xml:namespace prefix = "o" ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

    1.be是最重要的系动词,主语不同,be的形式也不同,且有时态的变化。

    a通常表示主语的特征、状态和身份等,后面接形容词、副词、名词、介词短语、不定式v-ing过去分词表语从句作表语。

    b特别要注意be+过去分词所构成的系表结构be+过去分词所构成的被动语态的区别。

    c前者侧重于表示主语的特征或所处的状态,通常没有由by引导的介词短语。

    如:The door was closed.

    后者侧重于强调主语是谓语动词所示动作的承受者,表示动作;句中可以用由by引导的介词短语。如:The door was closed by me.

    d还要注意be+ V-ing所构成的系表结构be+ V-ing”所构成的进行时态的区别。

    前者侧重于说明主语具有的特征或存在的状态,也可说明主语是什么。如:My job is teaching English.

    后者侧重于强调主语正在做某事。如:Mr Wang is reading an evening paper now.


    2.
    要注意由行为动词转化成的系动词。

    a表示人体感官的系动词有soundtastelookfeelsmell等,后面接形容词;

    b表示主语从一种状态转变到另一种状态的系动词有becomegetgoturnrungrowcomefallprove等,后面接形容词、名词或 to be+形容词,become后面接单数名词时,名词前要用不定冠词turn后面接单数名词时,名词前不用不定冠词

    c表示主语继续或保持某种身份、特征状态的系动词有continuekeepremainstaystand liereststay等,后面接表示状态的形容词;

    d表示判断的系动词有seemappear,后面接形容词、to be+名词或形容词、that-clause、不定式等。


    3.
    要注意系动词的固定搭配。常见的有come true, fall asleep, fall ill, go bad, come right, run wild, wear thin, turn nasty等。


    4.
    要特别注意某些动词既可以做系动词,又可以做实意动词的用法。

    系动词部分主要注意:
    其后要求接形容词,而不是
    副词表语。遇到这种情况,只能先根据其意思判断清楚到底是前者还是后者,然后再对后面的词性和词义做出正确判断和选择。
    taste一词为例:

    The newly-invented soft drinking tastes quite unique.
    (这种新研制的软饮料尝起来挺独特的。
    注意:在这句话里,
    taste做系动词,不能使用进行时,后面接形容词。)

    The chef is tasting the fish carefully.
    (厨师长正在品尝这道鱼。
    注意:在这句话中,
    taste实意动词,可以使用进行时,并且后面接副词做状语。)

  • 系动词用法点拨:
    1.系动词的进行时态应分情况讨论。
    一般地说,状态系动词无进行时态,而动态系动词有进行时态。
    但是在某些情况下,状态系动词也有进行时态,表示两个用途:
    一是表示一种短暂的、反常的状态。如:
    He is being kind.(一时而不能持久的性质)他装出和蔼可亲的样子。
    二是表示一种探询口气,使语言客气、生动、亲切。例如:
    I hope you are keeping well.(语气委婉)我希望你保持健康。
    Are you feeling any better?(语气亲切)你感觉好了些吗?
    试比较:
    Your hand feels cold.(无意识的静态性质。)你的手摸起来冰凉。
    不可以说:
    Your hand is feeling cold.(×)
    但可以说:
    The doctor is feeling her pulse.(有意识的动态动作)医生正在给她拿脉。
    The soup tastes good.(静态性质,无进行时)这汤的味道不错。
    The cook is tasting the soup.(动态动作,有进行时)厨师在尝汤的味道。

    总之,系动词有无进行时态应随系动词的意义或其语境变化而变化。
    我们在概述某一动词的进行时态时,不能笼统地说feel,smell无进行时,应指出其意义及其语用环境。
    例如smell的用法可见一斑。
    ①smell作“嗅觉”的能力时,虽是实义动词,但指的是一种性质的存在状态不能用于进行时态,常与can, could, be able to连用。
    The camels can smell the water a mile off.骆驼能嗅出一英里外有水。
    ②指“嗅、闻”的动作时,实义动词,可用于进行时态。
    The girl is smelling the flower.这姑娘正在闻那朵花。
    ③smell指“含有……气味”,“发出……气味”等事物性质时,半系动词,无进行时态。
    The dinner smells good.这饭菜闻起来真香。

    2.系动词的时态与形容词的比较级连用的问题。
    某些含有变化意义的动态系动词如get, become, grow, turn等的进行时态可与形容词的比较级连用,表示渐进过程,其意思是“越来越……”。例如:
    He is growing taller and taller.他长得越来越高了。
    Our life is getting better and better.我们的生活是越来越好了。
    The things are getting worse.情况是越来越糟了。

    3.所有半系动词的被动语态要分情况讨论。
    英语中某动词在作系动词用时,无被动语态,而作实义动词用时,才有被动语态,二者不可混为一谈。例如:
    不能说:
    The apple is tasted good.
    (因为taste此时是系动词,“尝起来”之意,指的是苹果的性质,无被动语态)
    但我们可以说:
    The apple is tasted by me.这苹果被我尝了一下。
    (taste此时指“尝一尝”这一动作,有被动语态)
    因此,在平时的英语教学和学习之 ,要有意注意半系动词在具体的语言环境中到底是系动词用法还是实义动词用法,要注意区分、识别。

    4.瞬间动态系动词能否与时间段连用的问题
    英语中某些表示瞬间意义的系动词不能与“for+时间段,since+时间点,how long until+时间,by + 时间,so far”等直接连用。例如:
    ①不能说:He has become a teacher for 2 years.
    应改为:He has been a teacher for 2 years.
    ②不能说:He has turned writer since 3 years ago.
    应改为:He has been a writer since 3 years ago.
    或It is three years since he turned writer.
    ③不能说:He got angry until his child came back home.
    应改为:He didn’t get angry until his child came back home.

    5.系动词能接几种表语(从句)
    系动词除了接adj.\\n.\\prep.短语,某些adv.以外,还可接以下几种表语形式:
    ①能接as if/as though表语从句的系动词有:look(看起来),smell(闻起来),sound(听起来),feel(觉得);appear(显得),seem(似乎)。例如:
    It looks as if we are going to have snow.看样子天要下雪了。
    He looked as if he had just stepped out of my book of fairy tales.
    他看来好像刚从我的童话故事中走出来似的。
    She seemed as if (though) she couldn’t understand why Laura was there.
    看来她好像不能理解为什么劳拉呆在那儿。
    It sounds to me as though there’s a tap running somewhere.
    我好像听到某处水龙头流水的声音。
    She felt as if her head were splitting.
    她仿佛觉得她的头要裂开了。
    The river appeared as if enveloped in smog.
    那条河好像笼罩在烟雾之中。
    It seems as if it were spring already.
    好像已是春天了。
    ②可用于“It+系动词+that从句”结构的有:seem, appear, 不可用be, look。如:
    It seemed that he had made some serious mistakes in his work.
    好像他在工作中犯了严重错误。
    It appeared that he was talking to himself.
    好像他在自言自语。
    ③能用不定式作表语的系动词有:be, seem, get, look, appear, prove, grow.
    Her job is to look after the children.
    她的工作是照料孩子们。
    He seems not to look after the children.
    他好像不是她的父亲。
    She looks to be a young girl of twenty year-old.
    她看起来像是一个20岁的年轻姑娘。
    He didn’t appear to dislike it.
    看不出他憎恨此事。
    My advice proved to be wrong.
    我的建议证明是错误的。
    He will grow to like this work gradually.
    他会逐渐喜欢这个工作的。
    ④能与there连用的系动词有:be, appear, seem.
    There appeared to be only one room.
    那儿好像只有一个房间。
    There seems(to be)no need to go.
    似乎没有必要走。

    6.能用两种否定形式的系动词有两个:seem, appear.
    举例说明:
    It doesn’t seem that we can get our money back.= It seems that we can’t get our money back.
    He seems not to be her father.= He doesn’t seem to be her father.
    The baby doesn’t appear to be awake.= The baby appears not to be awake.

    7.后接作表语的过去分词可构成系表结构
    能构成系表结构的系动词通常有两个:第一个是常见的be(is, am, was等);第二个是get,口语中常用。
    当二者作系动词用时,它们均表示一种存在状态,而不表示被动动作;当二者作助动词用时,后接作谓语的过去分词构成被动语态。
    Be + P.P常可以用get + P.P.来代替,但是并不是be系动词总是可以用get来代替。Get + P.P.系表结构常用于以下两种情况:
    1)表示偶然的、突发性的、意想不到的被动动作的结果或状态。
    Last night I got caught in the downpour.昨夜我被雨淋了(表示意想不到)
    The new car got scratched.新车给刮坏了。(表突发性)
    2)表示对自身所作的事。如get dressed, get lost等。
    John got injured while playing football last Saturday.约翰上周星期六踢足球时受了伤。
    They got married last month.他们上个月结婚了。
    另外,要注意区分系表结构与被动语态结构的用法。

考点名称:动名词
  • 动名词:
    如果一个动词加上了ing变成了名词,那么这个词称动名词。 动名词是一种兼有动词和名词特征的非限定动词。
    它可以支配宾语,也能被副词修饰。
    由于动名词是由动词变化而来,它仍保留着动词的某些特征,具有动词的某些变化形式,用以表达名词所不能表达的较为复杂的意念。
    动名词的名词特征表现在它可在句子中当名词来用,作主语、宾语、表语、定语。
  • 动名词的结构和形式:
    动名词的否定结构:
    动名词的否定结构由not 动名词组成。如:
    Trying without success is better than not trying at all. 实验没有成功也比不实验好。
    He hated himself for not having work hard. 他悔恨自己没有用功。
    I’m sorry for not having telephoned you before. 很抱歉,没有早给你打电话。
    He felt sorry for not having done the work well. 他为没有把工作做好感到难过。
    I fancy it has done you a lot of good not going. 我看不去对你倒好了。
    (not going 是动名词一般式的否定形式)
    There is no denying the fact that he si diligent.
    (no denying 也是动名词一般式的否定)

    动名词复合结构:
    通常情况下,动名词的逻辑主语为谓语动词的主语。如果动名词动作的发出者不失谓语动的主语时,则需要有自己的逻辑主语物主代词或名词所有格加动名词就构成了动名词的复合结构,这种结构在句中可以作主语,宾语等。
    (1)逻辑主语是有生命的名词作主语时,必须用名词或代词所有格,作宾语时(尤其在口语中),也可用名词普通个或人称代词宾格。如:
    Do you think my going there will be of any help?
    你看我去会有什么帮助吗?(宾语)
    The student’s knowing English well helps him in learning French.
    这位学生通晓英语对他学法语很有帮助。(主语)
    Do you mind my(me) smoking ? 你介意我抽烟吗?(宾语)
    They insist on Mary’s (Mary) going with them there.
    他们坚持要玛丽跟他们一起去那儿。(介词宾语)
    (2)逻辑主语是无生命名词是,通常只用名词普通格。如:
    Do you hear the rain pattering on the roof?
    你听见雨点打在屋顶上了吗?
    Is there any hope of our team winning the match ?
    我们对赢得比赛有希望吗?
    (3) 逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词this that , somebody , someone , nobody, none, anybody, anyone 时,只用普通格。如:
    She was woken up by somebody shouting outside.
    她被外面喊叫的人吵醒了。

    动名词的形式(一般式,完成式和被动式):
    (1) 动名词的一般式所表示的动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词表示的动作之后。如:
    We are very interested in collecting stamps. 我们对集邮很感兴趣。
    His coming will be of great help to us . 他来对我们大有帮助。
    但是有些明确表示时间的动词和介词 after, on,upon, 或for之后,常用一般式代替完成式,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。如:
    I shall never forget seeing the Great Wall for the first time.我永远不会忘记第一次看到长城的情景。
    On hearing that bad news , the mother couldn’t help crying. 一听到这个糟糕的消息,母亲就禁不住哭了起来。
    Excuse me for coming late. 我来晚了,请原谅。
    Thank you for giving us so much help. 谢谢你给了我们这么多帮助。
    (2) 动名词的完成式所表示的动作或状态在谓语动词之前完成或结束。
    He regrets not having taken part in the work. 他后悔没有参加这项工作。
    We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time. 我们因提前完成了这项工作而受到了表扬。
    (3)动名词的被动式:当动名词的逻辑主语是行为承受者时,用被动语态。如:
    I like being given harder work. 我喜欢接受难点的工作。
    She is proud of being admitted into the university. 她为被大学录取而感到自豪。
    The meeting was put off without his having been consulted. 会议延期并未和他商量。
    He doesn’t mind having been criticized. 他不介意过去受到的批评。

  • 动名词与现在分词的关系:
    动名词它在形式上与现在分词相同,都是在动词原形的词末加-ing。在现代语法中,这两种形式同视为"-ing形式"。
    这两种形式的另一个相同之处是:
    它们都是由动词变化而成的,它们都保留了动词的某些特征,它们都能带自己的宾语、状语,而构成动名词短语或是现在分词短语去担当句子成分。
    例如:
    Speaking in the public,he will surely be very cheerful .
    (现在分词短语,作状语)他在公众场所讲话时总是兴高采烈的。
    She hates speaking in the public.
    (动名词短语,作宾语)她不喜欢在公众场所讲话。

    动名词和现在分词都可以用于系动词之后作表语,区别方法是:
    ①作表语的动名词与主语指的是同一件事,此时系动词相当于“是”,通常把主语和表语的位置互换,语法和意思不变,例如:
    My hobby is swimming.可改为Swimming is my hobby.(可将原句中的主语与表语位置互换)
    ②现在分词作表语主要用以说明主语的性质,不能与主语互换位置,例如:
    The story is interesting .不可改为:Interesting is the story.
    2.动名词和现在分词都可以用作定语来修饰名词,两者的区别在于:
    动名词修饰名词时主要表示该名词的用途,而现在分词修饰名词时性质、状态或动作等。试比较:
    ①a swimming boy和a swimming suit
    前者的意思是“一个正在游泳的男孩”,即a boy who is swimming,现在分词swimming 表示被修饰名词boy的动作;
    而后者的意思是“游泳衣”,即a suit for swimming,动名词swimming表示suit 的用途。
    ②a sleeping child 和 a sleeping car
    前者的意思是“一个正在睡觉的孩子”,即a child who is sleeping,现在分词sleeping 表示被修饰名词 child 正处于的状态;
    而后者的意思是“卧车(被用来睡觉的车厢)”,即 a car which is used for sleeping,动名词 sleeping 表示car 的用途。

  • 动名词用法口诀:
    动名词常泛指,句法作用宾/表/定与主,时态/语态之形式,一般/完成/被动式。
    Being done 系被动,不含任何进行意。用作主语请留意,常用it作形式主语,不指未来发生事,表达的信息系已知。
    用作表语请记清,作用相当一名词,检验方法很简单,主与表换位能成立。
    用作定语也易辩,表示名词之用途。
    用作宾语稍复杂,关键留意谓语动词(跟动名词作宾语的常用动词附后),时态同谓动作比较,先于谓动用完成式,其逻辑主语不固定,在句中/句外均有之。
    否定式其前加not,复合式其前加物主词,非句首宾格词也可用,尤其口语中更如此。
    说明:1、主-----主语 2、宾-----宾语 3、表------表语 4、定------定语 5、谓动---谓语动词

    动名词的用法:
    一、动名词作主语 
    1. 直接位于句首做主语。例如:   
         Swimming is a good sport in summer.   
    2. 用 it 作形式主语,把动名词(真实主语)置于句尾作后置主语。   
    动名词做主语时,不太常用 it 作先行主语,多见于某些形容词及名词之后。例如:
    It is no use telling him not to worry.   
    常见的能用于这种结构的形容词还有:better,wonderful,enjoyable,interesting,foolish,difficult,useless,senseless,worthwhile,等。   
    注意:important,essential,necessary 等形容词不能用于上述结构。   
    3. 用于“There be”结构中。例如:   
    There is no saying when he'll come.很难说他何时回来。    
    4. 用于布告形式的省略结构中。例如:   
    No smoking ( =No smoking is allowed (here) ). (禁止吸烟)   
    No parking. (禁止停车)   
    5. 动名词的复合结构作主语   
    当动名词有自己的逻辑主语时,常可以在前面加上一个名词或代词的所有格,构成动名词的复合结构
    (这时,名词或代词的所有格做动名词的逻辑主语)。
    动名词的复合结构也可以在句中作主语。例如:    
    Their coming to help was a great encouragement to us.   

    二、动名词作宾语
    1.作动词的宾语   
    某些动词后出现非限定性动词时只能用动名词作宾语,不能用不定式。常见的此类动词有:
    admit, appreciate, excuse, stand, advise, allow, permit, avoid,  consider, enjoy, finish     
    They went on walking and never stopped talking.他们继续走,说个不停。 
    I found it pleasant walking along the seashore.在海滩上走真是乐事。   
    Mark often attempts to escape being fined whenever he breaks traffic  regulations.   
    每当马克违反交通规则时,他常常企图逃避罚款的处分。    
    2.作介词的宾语   
    We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term. 我们正考虑为下学期制定新的计划。   
    Shall we have a rest or get down to doing our work? 我们休息呢还是开始干活?   
    3.作形容词的宾语   
    The music is well worth listening to more than once.  这种曲子很值得多听几遍。   
    We are busy preparing for the coming sports meet. 我们正为马上到来的运动会忙着做准备。

    三、动名词作表语
    动名词作表语时句子主语常是表示无生命的事物的名词或what引导的名词性从句。
    表语、动名词与主语通常是对等的关系,表示主语的内容,主语、表语可互换位置。   
    Your task is cleaning the windows.   你的任务就是擦窗户。
    (Cleaning the windows is your task.)   
    What I hate most is being laughed at.  我最痛恨的就是被别人嘲笑。
    (Being laughed at is what I hate most.)

    四、动名词作定语
    动名词作定语往往表示被修饰词的某种用途。如:   
    a walking stick =a stick for walking=a stick which is used for walking   
    a washing machine=a machine for washing=a machine which is used for washing    
    a reading room=a room for reading=a room which is used for reading   
    a measuring tape=a tape for measuring=a tape which is used for measuring   
    sleeping pills=pills for sleeping=pills which is used for sleeping

  • 动名词是非限定动词的一种形式,由动词原形+ing构成。它既有动词的特征,又有名词的特征,故称。
    动名词也有时态和语态的变化,如表所示(以及物动词write为例),不及物动词没有语态的变化。
    时态、语态主动被动
    一般式writingbeing  written
    完成式
    having written
    having been written
  • 动名词使用注意事项:
    1) 动名词做主语时,谓语动词为单数
    2) 在动名词和不定式中,作为介词的宾语是动名词
    3) 动名词的否定直接在其前加否定词,通过代词的宾格或所有格形式给出逻辑主语
    例:I would appreciate you calling back this afternoon.
    4) 有些词后只能接动名词
    acknowledge;admit; advise;advocate;allow;appreciate; avoid; celebrate; consider; contemplate; defer; delay; deny;
    detest; discontinue; dislike; dispute; enjoy; it entails; escape; excuse; explain; fancy; feel like; finish; forgive; can’t help;
    hinder; imagine; it involves; keep; it means; mention; mind; miss; it necessitates; pardon; postpone; practice; prevent;
    recall; report; resent; resist; risk; suggest; understand...
    5) 另外还有一些接-ing形式的常用说法
    it’s no good; it’s no/little/hardly any/ use; it’s not/hardly/scarcely use; it’s worthwhile; spend money/time; there’s no;
    there’s no point in; there’s nothing worse than; what’s the use/point
    6) 有些词后面加不定式和动名词均可
    remember,forget,try,stop,go on,continue,stop,regret,cease,mean后面均可用不定式和-ing形式,但意义截然不容。
    例:remember to do/doing:
    ①I remembered to post the letters.(指未来/过去未来将要做的动作)
    ②I remembered posting/having posted the letters.(我记得做过这个动作)
     forget与remember的用法类似。
     regret的用法:
    ①I regret to inform you that…(我很遗憾地通知你……)
    ②I regretted having left the firm after twenty years.(为了“二十年前的离开”而遗憾。)
     try to(努力)与try +–ing(试验):
    ①You really must try to overcome your shyness.
    ②Try practicing five hours a day.
考点名称:一般过去时
  • 一般过去时:
    表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为;过去主语所具备的能力和性格。
    基本结构:
    主语+动词过去式+其他;
    否定形式①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词;
    一般疑问句Did+主语+do+其他。
  • 一般过去时句法结构:
    肯定形式
    主语+动词过去式+其他
    例句:She often came to help us in those days.
    否定形式
    ①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词
    例句:I didn't know you like coffee
    一般疑问句
    ①Did+主语+do+其他? ②Was\\Were+主语+表语?
    例句:Did I do that?
    用表格整理如下:
    肯定式疑问式否定式疑问否定式
    IworkedDid I work?I did not workDid I not work?
    He(She,It) workedDid he(she,it) work?He(she,it) did not workDid he(she,it) notwork?
    We workedDid we work?We did not workDid we not work?
    You workedDid you work?You did not workDid you not work?
    They workedDid they work?They did not workDid they not work?
    记忆口诀:
    一般过去时并不难,过去动作、状态记心间。
    动词要用过去式,时间状语句末站。
    否定句很简单,didn't 站在动原前,其它部分不要变。
    一般疑问句也好变,did放在句子前,主语、动原、其它部分依次站。
    特殊疑问句也简单,疑问词加一般疑问句记心间。
    最后一条请注意,动词过去式要牢记!

    一般过去时中动词过去式变化规则:

    构成

    举例

    一般情况

    词尾+ed

    动词原形

    过去式和过去分词

    look
    talk

    looked
    talked

    以不发音字母e结尾

    词尾+d

    like
    arrive

    liked
    arrived

    以“辅以字母+y”结尾

    变y为i,再加ed

    fly
    study

    flied
    studied

    以重读闭音节结尾,且末尾只有一个辅音字母

    双写词尾+ed

    stop
    plan

    stopped
    planned 


    结构句型:

    1.一般句子
    I watched TV last night.
    2.一般疑问句
    Did you watch TV last night?
    3.there be 句型
    There was an apple on the table last night.
    Was there an apple on the table last night
  • 一般过去时注意事项:
    1.注意主句与从句中时态的一致性
    如果主句用了过去时,从句中一般也要用过去式,或者过去进行时、过去完成时等。例如:
    He believed that he was right. 他相信自己是对的。
    I didn’t know you were here. 我不知道你在这儿。
    I thought they were with you. 我以为他们和你在一起。

    2.在口语中, 一般过去时并不一定指真正的过去,而只是表示一种礼貌性语气。例如:
    I wondered (wonder) if you could do me a favor. 不知你可否帮我一个忙。
    I wanted (want) to ask if I could borrow your car. 我想问问可否借用你的车。
    I hoped (hope) you could (can) give me some advice. 我希望你能帮我出点主意。
    Did (Do) you want to see me? 你想见我吗?

    3.used to
    used to 是一个词组,表示“过去曾经是……而现在已经停止了”的动作。例如:
    I used to work fourteen hours a day. 我过去常常一天干十四个小时。(而现在不这样了)
    I used to take a walk in the morning.我过去是在早晨散步。(而现在不在早晨散步了)
  • 一般过去式用法:
    (1)一般过去时表示在过去某个特定时间发生,也可以表示过去习惯性、经常性的动作。
    一般过去时不强调动作对现在的影响,只说明过去的事情。
    句式:主语+动词过去式+宾语+其它
    I had a word with Julia this morning.今天早晨,我跟茱莉雅说了几句话。
    He smoked many cigarettes a day until he gave up. 他没有戒烟的那阵子,抽烟抽得可凶了。

    (2) 一般过去时常与表示过去的时间状语或从句连用,如:
    yesterday,last week ,in  the  past ,in 1993,at that time,once,during the war,before,a few days ago,when 等等.
    (句子中谓语动词是用一般过去时还是用现在完成时,取决于动作是否对现在有影响)。
    Have you had your lunch? 你吃过午饭了吗?(你现在不饿吗?)
    Yes,I have. 是的,我已经吃过了。(已经吃饱了,不想再吃了。)
    When did you have it? 你是什么时候吃的?(关心的是吃的动作发生在何时。)
    I had it about ten minutes ago. 我大约是十分钟以前吃的。)
    Used to do something 表示过去常做而现在已经停止了的习惯动作。
    I used to work fourteen hours a day. 我过去常常一天干十四个小时。
    I ate it at 6:45。我在六点四十五分吃了。

    (3)带有确定的过去时间状语时,要用过去时。如:
    yesterday(昨天)、two days ago…(两天前…… )、last year…(去年…)、the other day(前几天)、
    once upon a time(很久以前)、 just now(刚才)、in the old days(过去的日子里)、before liberation(解放前…)、
    When I was 8 years old(当我八岁时…)、at+一个时间点
    Did you have a party the other day?前几天,你们开了晚会了吗?
    Lei Feng was a good soldier.雷锋是个好战士。
    注:在谈到已死去的人的情况时,多用过去时。

    (4)表示过去连续发生的动作时,要用过去时。这种情况下,往往没有表示过去的时间状语,而通过上下文来表示。
    The boy opened his eyes for a moment,looked at the captain,and then died.
    那男孩把眼睛张开了一会儿,看看船长,然后就去世了。

    (5)表示过去一段时间内经常或反复的动作。常与always,never等连用。
    Mrs. Peter always carried an umbrella.彼得太太过去老是带着一把伞。
    (只是说明她过去的动作,不表明她现在是否常带着伞。)
    比较:
    Mrs. Peter always carries an umbrella.彼得太太老是带着伞。
    (说明这是她的习惯,表明她现在仍然还习惯总带着一把伞)
    Mrs. Peter is always carrying an umbrella.彼得太太 总是带着一把伞。
    (表示说话者对这一动作或行为厌烦)
    I never drank wine.我以前从不喝酒。
    (不涉及到现在,不说明现在是否喝酒)

    (6)如果强调已经终止的习惯时要用 used to do(过去常常做,而现在不那样做了)
    He used to drink alcohol.他过去喝酒。
    (意味着他现在不喝酒了。喝酒这个动作终止了)
    I used to take a walk in the morning.我过去是在早晨散步。
    (意味着现在不在早晨散步了)
    比较:
    I took a walk in the morning.我曾经在早晨散过步。
    (只是说明过去这一动作)

    (7)有些句子,虽然没有表示过去确定时间的状语,但实际上是指过去发生的动作或存在的状态的话,也要用过去时。
    I didn''t know you were in Paris.我不知道你在巴黎。
    (因为在说话时,我已经知道你在巴黎了。这句话指的是说话之前,所以只能用过去时表示。实际上,这句话暗指:But now I know you are here.)
    I thought you were ill.我以为你病了呢。
    (这句话应是在说话之前,我以为你病了。但是现在我知道你没病)
  • 一般过去时三变技巧:
    一变:肯定句变为否定句
    技巧1.当句中含有情态动词或助动词could,would,should等时,可直接在其后面加not构成否定句。例如:
    I could get you a concert ticket. → I could not / couldn't get you a concert ticket.
    技巧2.当句中含有系动词was,were 时,可直接在其后加not构成否定句。例如:
    I was on the Internet when you called me. → I was not / wasn't on the Internet when you called me.
    技巧3.当句中谓语是除情态动词、助动词、系动词was, were以外的动词时,在该动词之前加did not / didn't,动词还原,构成否定句。例如:
    The famous singer sang some Chinese songs. → The famous singer did not / didn't sing any Chinese songs.

    二变:陈述句变为一般疑问句
    技巧1.移动词语的位置。将was,were, could,would,should等移到句首。例如:
    He could pack his things himself. → Could he pack his things himself?
    技巧2.添加助动词did。谓语是除情态动词、助动词、系动词was, were以外的动词时,在主语之前加did,动词还原。例如:
    Mr Li looked very old. → Did Mr Li look very old?

    三变:陈述句变为特殊疑问句
    技巧1.确定疑问词:人who / whom,物what,地点where,时间when / what time,原因why,频率how often,长度how long,距离how far等等。例如:
    They gave the concert last night. → When did they give the concert?
    技巧2.辨认结构形式:疑问词+情态动词/助动词/ was / were / did +主语+...? 例如:
    The accident happened near the station. → Where did the accident happen?

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