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  3. 九年级英语
  4. 一般过去时被动语态

- Where are the desks?-They _______ to the second floor by two boys.[ ]A. are carried B. were carrie

一、题文

- Where are the desks?
-They _______ to the second floor by two boys.
[     ]
A. are carried
B. were carried
C. are carrying
D. were carrying

考点提示:一般过去时,被动语态

二、答案

B

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《- Where are the desks?-They _______ to the second floor by two boys.[ ]A. are carried B. were carrie》这道题主要考你对 一般过去时被动语态 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:一般过去时,被动语态

考点名称:一般过去时
  • 一般过去时:
    表示过去某个时间里发生的动作或状态;过去习惯性、经常性的动作、行为;过去主语所具备的能力和性格。
    基本结构:
    主语+动词过去式+其他;
    否定形式①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词;
    一般疑问句Did+主语+do+其他。
  • 一般过去时句法结构:
    肯定形式
    主语+动词过去式+其他
    例句:She often came to help us in those days.
    否定形式
    ①was/were+not;②在行为动词前加didn't,同时还原行为动词
    例句:I didn't know you like coffee
    一般疑问句
    ①Did+主语+do+其他? ②Was\\Were+主语+表语?
    例句:Did I do that?
    用表格整理如下:
    肯定式疑问式否定式疑问否定式
    IworkedDid I work?I did not workDid I not work?
    He(She,It) workedDid he(she,it) work?He(she,it) did not workDid he(she,it) notwork?
    We workedDid we work?We did not workDid we not work?
    You workedDid you work?You did not workDid you not work?
    They workedDid they work?They did not workDid they not work?
    记忆口诀:
    一般过去时并不难,过去动作、状态记心间。
    动词要用过去式,时间状语句末站。
    否定句很简单,didn't 站在动原前,其它部分不要变。
    一般疑问句也好变,did放在句子前,主语、动原、其它部分依次站。
    特殊疑问句也简单,疑问词加一般疑问句记心间。
    最后一条请注意,动词过去式要牢记!

    一般过去时中动词过去式变化规则:

    构成

    举例

    一般情况

    词尾+ed

    动词原形

    过去式和过去分词

    look
    talk

    looked
    talked

    以不发音字母e结尾

    词尾+d

    like
    arrive

    liked
    arrived

    以“辅以字母+y”结尾

    变y为i,再加ed

    fly
    study

    flied
    studied

    以重读闭音节结尾,且末尾只有一个辅音字母

    双写词尾+ed

    stop
    plan

    stopped
    planned 


    结构句型:

    1.一般句子
    I watched TV last night.
    2.一般疑问句
    Did you watch TV last night?
    3.there be 句型
    There was an apple on the table last night.
    Was there an apple on the table last night
  • 一般过去时注意事项:
    1.注意主句与从句中时态的一致性
    如果主句用了过去时,从句中一般也要用过去式,或者过去进行时、过去完成时等。例如:
    He believed that he was right. 他相信自己是对的。
    I didn’t know you were here. 我不知道你在这儿。
    I thought they were with you. 我以为他们和你在一起。

    2.在口语中, 一般过去时并不一定指真正的过去,而只是表示一种礼貌性语气。例如:
    I wondered (wonder) if you could do me a favor. 不知你可否帮我一个忙。
    I wanted (want) to ask if I could borrow your car. 我想问问可否借用你的车。
    I hoped (hope) you could (can) give me some advice. 我希望你能帮我出点主意。
    Did (Do) you want to see me? 你想见我吗?

    3.used to
    used to 是一个词组,表示“过去曾经是……而现在已经停止了”的动作。例如:
    I used to work fourteen hours a day. 我过去常常一天干十四个小时。(而现在不这样了)
    I used to take a walk in the morning.我过去是在早晨散步。(而现在不在早晨散步了)
  • 一般过去式用法:
    (1)一般过去时表示在过去某个特定时间发生,也可以表示过去习惯性、经常性的动作。
    一般过去时不强调动作对现在的影响,只说明过去的事情。
    句式:主语+动词过去式+宾语+其它
    I had a word with Julia this morning.今天早晨,我跟茱莉雅说了几句话。
    He smoked many cigarettes a day until he gave up. 他没有戒烟的那阵子,抽烟抽得可凶了。

    (2) 一般过去时常与表示过去的时间状语或从句连用,如:
    yesterday,last week ,in  the  past ,in 1993,at that time,once,during the war,before,a few days ago,when 等等.
    (句子中谓语动词是用一般过去时还是用现在完成时,取决于动作是否对现在有影响)。
    Have you had your lunch? 你吃过午饭了吗?(你现在不饿吗?)
    Yes,I have. 是的,我已经吃过了。(已经吃饱了,不想再吃了。)
    When did you have it? 你是什么时候吃的?(关心的是吃的动作发生在何时。)
    I had it about ten minutes ago. 我大约是十分钟以前吃的。)
    Used to do something 表示过去常做而现在已经停止了的习惯动作。
    I used to work fourteen hours a day. 我过去常常一天干十四个小时。
    I ate it at 6:45。我在六点四十五分吃了。

    (3)带有确定的过去时间状语时,要用过去时。如:
    yesterday(昨天)、two days ago…(两天前…… )、last year…(去年…)、the other day(前几天)、
    once upon a time(很久以前)、 just now(刚才)、in the old days(过去的日子里)、before liberation(解放前…)、
    When I was 8 years old(当我八岁时…)、at+一个时间点
    Did you have a party the other day?前几天,你们开了晚会了吗?
    Lei Feng was a good soldier.雷锋是个好战士。
    注:在谈到已死去的人的情况时,多用过去时。

    (4)表示过去连续发生的动作时,要用过去时。这种情况下,往往没有表示过去的时间状语,而通过上下文来表示。
    The boy opened his eyes for a moment,looked at the captain,and then died.
    那男孩把眼睛张开了一会儿,看看船长,然后就去世了。

    (5)表示过去一段时间内经常或反复的动作。常与always,never等连用。
    Mrs. Peter always carried an umbrella.彼得太太过去老是带着一把伞。
    (只是说明她过去的动作,不表明她现在是否常带着伞。)
    比较:
    Mrs. Peter always carries an umbrella.彼得太太老是带着伞。
    (说明这是她的习惯,表明她现在仍然还习惯总带着一把伞)
    Mrs. Peter is always carrying an umbrella.彼得太太 总是带着一把伞。
    (表示说话者对这一动作或行为厌烦)
    I never drank wine.我以前从不喝酒。
    (不涉及到现在,不说明现在是否喝酒)

    (6)如果强调已经终止的习惯时要用 used to do(过去常常做,而现在不那样做了)
    He used to drink alcohol.他过去喝酒。
    (意味着他现在不喝酒了。喝酒这个动作终止了)
    I used to take a walk in the morning.我过去是在早晨散步。
    (意味着现在不在早晨散步了)
    比较:
    I took a walk in the morning.我曾经在早晨散过步。
    (只是说明过去这一动作)

    (7)有些句子,虽然没有表示过去确定时间的状语,但实际上是指过去发生的动作或存在的状态的话,也要用过去时。
    I didn''t know you were in Paris.我不知道你在巴黎。
    (因为在说话时,我已经知道你在巴黎了。这句话指的是说话之前,所以只能用过去时表示。实际上,这句话暗指:But now I know you are here.)
    I thought you were ill.我以为你病了呢。
    (这句话应是在说话之前,我以为你病了。但是现在我知道你没病)
  • 一般过去时三变技巧:
    一变:肯定句变为否定句
    技巧1.当句中含有情态动词或助动词could,would,should等时,可直接在其后面加not构成否定句。例如:
    I could get you a concert ticket. → I could not / couldn't get you a concert ticket.
    技巧2.当句中含有系动词was,were 时,可直接在其后加not构成否定句。例如:
    I was on the Internet when you called me. → I was not / wasn't on the Internet when you called me.
    技巧3.当句中谓语是除情态动词、助动词、系动词was, were以外的动词时,在该动词之前加did not / didn't,动词还原,构成否定句。例如:
    The famous singer sang some Chinese songs. → The famous singer did not / didn't sing any Chinese songs.

    二变:陈述句变为一般疑问句
    技巧1.移动词语的位置。将was,were, could,would,should等移到句首。例如:
    He could pack his things himself. → Could he pack his things himself?
    技巧2.添加助动词did。谓语是除情态动词、助动词、系动词was, were以外的动词时,在主语之前加did,动词还原。例如:
    Mr Li looked very old. → Did Mr Li look very old?

    三变:陈述句变为特殊疑问句
    技巧1.确定疑问词:人who / whom,物what,地点where,时间when / what time,原因why,频率how often,长度how long,距离how far等等。例如:
    They gave the concert last night. → When did they give the concert?
    技巧2.辨认结构形式:疑问词+情态动词/助动词/ was / were / did +主语+...? 例如:
    The accident happened near the station. → Where did the accident happen?
考点名称:被动语态
  • 语态:
    是动词的一种形式,它表示主语和谓语的关系。
    语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
    如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态;
    如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态。
  • 被动语态的构成:
    被动语态的基本结构:
    主语+be +过去分词(+by+动作的发出者)
    ① 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词
    如:Trees are planted every year.
    ② 现在进行时 am/is/are+ being +过去分词
    如:The road is being repaired. 
    ③ 现在完成时 have/has + been +过去分词
    如:The work has been finished.
    ④ 一般过去时 was/were + 过去分词
    如:The story was told by him.
    Many birds were killed last year.
    ⑤过去进行时 was/were+ being + 过去分词
    如: The new house was being painted when I got home.
    ⑥过去完成时 had +been+ 过去分词
    如: He told me that the work had been finished.
    ⑦一般将来时  will +be + 过去分词
    如:The problem will be discussed tomorrow.
    ⑧ 过去将来时 would/should +be +过去分词
    如: He said that the Christmas tree would be put up soon.
    ⑨情态动词的被动语态
    情态动词+ be +过去分词    
    如:The problem must be solved soon.
    Children should be taught to love animals.
  • 被动语态使用注意:
    1. 不及物动词无被动语态。 如:happen, break down, come out......
    What will happen in 100 years.
    The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
    2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: write, sell, ride.....
    This pen writes well.
    This new book sells well.
    3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。
    例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
    see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
    A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
    The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
    4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。
    He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
    He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
    My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
    5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。
    We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.
    He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
    The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.
    构成be+done.
  • 主动句变为被动句所遵循的4个步骤:
    ①把原主动句中的宾语变为被动句的主语
    ②把动词变为被动形式即be +过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持不变。
    ③原主动句的主语如需要则放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现(注代词的宾格),如不需要则可省略。
    ④其它的成分(定语、状语)不变。

    不用于被动语态的情形:
    ①不及物动词没有被动语态
    这类动词有take place, happen, come about, break out, appear, disappear, last,  arise等。
    例如:A fire broke out during the night.
    ②某些静态动词不用于被动语态
    这类动词有have, lack, fit, hold, suit, resemble等。 
    例如:My shoes do not fit me.
    ③宾语为相互代词和反身代词时不用于被动语态
    例如:We should help each other.

    关于主动形式表示被动意义:
    ①系动词(如look, sound, smell, feel, taste, prove等)要用主动表被动,因为系动词为不及物动词,它们没有被动语态形式。
    例如:The building looks very beautiful.
    ②当open, close, shut, lock, move, read, wash, clean, cook, cut, wear, carry 等用作不及物动词且表示主语的某种属性时,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book sells well.
    ③有的动词本身含有被动意味,通常用主动形式来表示被动含义。
    例如:Her eyes filled with tears.
    ④不定式to blame, to let用作表语时,通常要用主动表被动。
    例如:Who is to blame?
    ⑤某些“be+形容词+to do”结构中的不定式通常要用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book is difficult to understand.
    ⑥不定式用于某些动词(如have, have got, get, want, need等)的宾语后作定语时,如果不定式的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:Do you have time to help us?
    ⑦在too...to do sth.和...enough to do sth. 这两个结构中,若主语与其后不定式为to do sth.被动关系,则该不定式通常用主动形式表示被动意义(有时也可直接用 被动式)。
    例如:The writing is too faint to read.
    ⑧be worth后的动名词要用主动表被动。
    例如:This movie is worth seeing.
    ⑨在need, want, require等少数表示“需要”的动词后的动名词用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The house needs cleaning.

    表示“据说”的三类被动句型:
    ①It is said that...句式
    例如:It is said that thirteen is an unlucky number.
    ②There is said that...句式 
    例如:There is said to be plenty of oil off our coast.
    ③sb./sth.is said that...句式
    例如:Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cancer.
  • 被动语态各时态构成 :

    时态

    被动语态 

    一般现在时

    am/is/are+过去分词

    一般过去时

    was/were+过去分词

    现在进行时

    am/is/are being+过去分词

    过去进行时

    was/were being+过去分词

    一般将来时

    will be+过去分词

    过去将来时

    would be+过去分词

    现在完成时

    have/has been+过去分词

    过去完成时

    had been+过去分词

    情态动词

    情态动词be+过去分词

  • 情态动词的被动语态:
    一、理解含情态动词的被动语态的概念含情态动词的被动语态说明某个被动性动作所反映出的感情和态度。
    初中阶段可用于被动语态的情态动词有“can、may、must、need、should”等,
    分别表示“能够被……”,“可以被……”,“必须被……”,“需要被……“,应该被……”等。

    二、掌握含情态动词的被动语态的不同句式的变换方法含情态动词的被动语态的疑问句、否定句的变化均借助于情态动词完成。
    (一)一般疑问句直接将陈述句被动语态中的情态动词提前。如:
    Mustthisworkbedoneatonce?这项工作必须立即完成吗?
    Shouldyourhomeworkbefinishedbeforesix?你的家庭作业应在六点前完成吗?
    (二)特殊疑问句由疑问词加上一般疑问句被动语态构成。如:
    Whenmustthisworkbedone?这工作必须在什么时候完成?
    Wherecanthelostbookbefound?这本失踪的书能在什么地方被找到?
    (三)反意疑问句借助情态动词构成附加疑问部分。如:
    Thisbridgecanbebuiltnextyear,can'tit?这座桥明年能建成,是吗?
    Thisbookshouldn'tbetakenoutofthelibrary,shouldit?这本书不应被带出图书馆,是吗?
    (四)否定句在情态动词后面加上“not”或“never”即可,但“must”表“必要”时否定式为“needn't”。如:
    Thisworkneedn'tbedoneatonce.这项工作没必要立即做。Thisdustbinshouldn'tbeputhere.这个垃圾箱不应放在这儿。

    三、含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答应保留原情态动词,
    但“must”表“必须”时,其否定回答应用“needn't”、“need”表“必要”时,其肯定回答应用“must”。如:
    —Shouldmyexercisesbefinishedtoday?我的作业应在今天完成吗?
    —Yes,theyshould.是的,应在今天完成。(No,theyshouldn't.不,不应在今天完成。)
    —Musthisexercisebookbehandedinatonce?他的练习本必须立即上交吗?
    —Yes,itmust.是的,必须立即上交。(No,itneedn't.不,不必立即上交。)
    —Needhebeoperatedonatonce?他必须立即手术吗?
    —Yes,hemust.是的,他必须。(No,heneedn't.不,他不必。)

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