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  3. 八年级英语
  4. 过去进行时一般现在时过去完成进行时

—_____anyone hurt in the big fire? —No, everybody was OK.A.DoesB.WasC.DidD.Do

一、题文

—_____anyone hurt in the big fire?
—No, everybody was OK.
A.DoesB.WasC.DidD.Do

考点提示:过去进行时,一般现在时,过去完成进行时

二、答案

B

试题分析:句意:在大火中有人受伤吗?没有,所有人都很好。根据后面的回答可知句子的时态为一般过去时,hurt为形容词做表语;故选B。

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《—_____anyone hurt in the big fire? —No, everybody was OK.A.DoesB.WasC.DidD.Do》这道题主要考你对 过去进行时一般现在时过去完成进行时 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:过去进行时,一般现在时,过去完成进行时

考点名称:过去进行时
  • 过去进行时:
    表示在过去某一时刻或某一段时间内进行或发生的动作。其形式为was/were+V-ing。
    常与表示过去的时间状语连用,如:
    last night,last Saturday等;
    或者与when,while,as引导的过去时间状语连用。
  • 过去进行时的结构:
    1. 过去进行时由“主语+was/were + 现在分词”构成
    eg: We were having supper when the phone rang. 我们正在吃晚饭时电话响了。
    2. 过去进行时的否定式由“主语+was/were not +现在分词”构成
    eg: This time yesterday Jack was not watching TV. He was repairing his bike. 昨天这个时候,杰克不是在看电视,而是在修理自行车。
    3. 过去进行时的疑问式由“was/were +主语+ 现在分词”组成
    eg: Were you playing basketball at four yesterday afternoon? 你们在干什么昨天下午的时间啊  回答我啊?
  • 过去进行时和一般过去时的区别:
    一、二者概念理解
    一般过去时叙述旧事,过去进行时描述背景。
    A、一般过去时
    1.过去状态、动作或事件
    He went to Beijing the other day.(带具体时间)
    2.过去的习惯
    a would ,used to与过去时
    would 表间断性不规则的习惯,常带频率时间
    used to 表一贯性有规律的习惯
    They used to meet and would sometimes exchange one or two words.
    He smoked a lot two years ago. (过去行为)
    bWould 用于文中不用于句首,只表过去习惯。
    Used to 表今昔对比的含义,叙述习惯动作可与would 换用。
    When he was a boy , he would often go there . (叙述过去)
    She isn't what she used to be. (今昔对比)
    c 表示状态时一般只用used to
    Tom used to be fat /There used to stand a tree there. (状态)
    dwas (were) used to +ving表示“合适于,适应于…..”
    He used to work at night . (“习惯”表经常)
    He was used to working at night. (习惯表适应)
    3.过去的经历,平行动作,依此事件用一般过去时。
    He sat there and listened to the radio.(依此发生)
    4.客气委婉的语气,用于情态动词,助动词和want , wonder , hope 等
    How did you like the film? / Could you help me?

    B. 过去进行时
    1.在过去某阶段或某一时刻正在发生
    What were you doing at 8:30 last night? (过去某时刻正在发生)
    2.性动词用过去进行时表示按计划、打算
    During that time he was going with us.(表示打算)
    3.lways ,often ,usually 等连用表喜爱,讨厌等感情色彩。
    He was always Changing his mind.

    二、区别
    A. 进行时表某一行为的“片断”一般时表示行为的“整体”和存在的状态。
    I was reading the book at that time. (未读完,“读”的片段)
    I read the book yesterday. (已读完,表整个“读”)
    B、一般持续时间状语多与进行时连用
    It was raining all night.(优先用was raining ,rained 为持续动词,故也可使用)
    He was writing a letter the whole of afternoon. (短暂动词与持续时间连用,表反复,连续发生,不可用一般过去时)
    C、while 时间状语从句中用短暂动词时只能用进行时。
    例:He broke a chair while he was jumping up and down.
    D、While 所在主从句动作大致持续相等时主从句一般都用进行时,但若是持续动词可都用一般过去时,两个动作一长一短时短的用一般时,长的用进行时。
    I was cooking the dinner while he was playing the piano.(平行)
    I cooked the dinner while he played the piano.
    I saw him while I was walking to the station.

  • 过去进行时的基本用法:
    过去进行时的基本用法主要表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作。如:
    He fell asleep when he was reading. 他看书时睡着了。   
    2. 用过去进行时表示现在主要是为了使语气委婉、客气。如:
    I was wondering if you could give me a lift. 我不知你能否让我搭一下车。   
    【注】一般过去时也有类似用法,但比较而言,用过去进行时显得更客气,更不肯定。   
    3. 过去进行时表示感情色彩与现在进行时相似,过去进行时也可表示满意、称赞、惊讶、 
    厌恶等感情色彩,也通常与 always, forever, continually等副词连用。如:
    They were always quarrelling. 他们老是吵架。   
    4. 动词be的过去进行时动词be的进行时也可表示过去一时的表现或暂时的状态。   
    比较:He was friendly. 他很友好。(指过去长期如此)   
       He was being friendly. 他当时显得很友好。(指当时一时的表现)

    特殊用法

    1、当句子意思很清楚时,我们也可以把两个动词都换成一般过去时
    We listened carefully when the teacher read the text. 老师读课文时,我们都仔细地听着。
    2、表示按计划、安排过去将要发生的事。
    用于come,go,leave,start,arrive等表示位置转移的动词时,也可以用过去进行时表示过去将要发生的动作。
    如:He told me that he was going soon. 他告诉我他很快就要走了。
    3、表示故事发生的背景。
    It was snowing as the medical team made its way to the front.
    那支医疗小组往前线行进时,天正下着雪。
    4、表示一个新的动作刚刚开始。
    过去进行时可用来引出一个新的动作,这种用法颇有点儿像镜头转换。
    Five minutes later,he stood in the doorway smoking a cigarette.
    5分钟后,他已站在门口抽着烟。
    5、过去进行时还可和when结构遥相呼应,含有意外之意。
    I was walking in the street when someone called me.
    我正在街上走时突然有人喊我。
    6、用来陈述原因或用作借口。
    She went to the doctor yesterday. She was having a lot of trouble with her heart.
    她昨天去看病了。她患了很严重的心脏病。
    7、与always,constantly等词连用,表示感情色彩。
    The girl was always changing her mind.
    这女孩老是改变主意。

考点名称:一般现在时
  • 一般现在时:
    :表示通常性、规律性、习惯性的状态或者动作(有时间规律发生的事件)的一种时间状态。
  • 一般现在时的具体用法:
    1. 表示经常的或习惯性的动作,常与表示频率的时间状语连用。    
    e.g.  I leave home for school at 7:00 every morning. 
    2. 表示客观事实和普遍真理。    
    e.g.  The earth moves around the sun.
    3. 表示现在发生的具体动作或存在的状态 
    e.g. He lives in Beijing now.
    4. 习惯性的爱好或行为
    e.g. I like dancing while she likes singing.
    5. 表示预先计划或安排好的行为。 
    e.g.  Our class begins at 7:45.
    6. 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替将来时。 
    e.g.  If you come, we will wait for you.
    7. 表示格言或警句中。 
    e.g.  Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 
    8.表示主语具备的性格、能力、特征和状态。 
    e.g. I don't want so much. 
    Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.
    比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup. 
      I am doing my homework now.
    9.在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替将来时。 
    10.小说故事用一般现在时代替一般过去时。新闻报道类的内容,为了体现其“新鲜”性,也用一般现在时来表示过去发生的事情。 
    11.有些表示状态和感觉的动词表示现在发生的具体行为时,只用一般现在时,而不用进行时态。 
    注意★:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 
    例:Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me,I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。
  • 一般现在时与现在进行时的区别:
    一、两种时态的主要含义:
    一般现在时
    1.表示事物的本质特性或客观存在,没有时限性。
    The table ____ soft。(feels) 表特性特征。
    Japan ___ in the east of China。 (lives) 表客观事实
    2.现阶段经常性、习惯性的行为,可带频率时间。
    The shop closes at 7:30 p.m.
    Father doesn’t smoke. (习惯)
    3.表说话时的状态,感觉或结果,一般用状态动词,如:
    It doesn’t matter. Does it hurt? (感觉结果)
    4.特殊用法:
    -在条件、时间、让步从句中用现在时代替将来。
    -If you go there,I’ll help you.
    —用在begin,come,go,leave,return,open,close 等短暂谓语动词表规定计划。
    The plane takes off at 11:30. (不受主观支配的计划)
    -在剧本、解说、标题或there(here)开头的句中表进行
    There goes the bell/Here comes Mr.Wang.
    I declare the meeting opens.(正在宣布)
    He meets the ball and hits back to No.2 (正在发生)

    现在进行时
    1.说话时正在发生,进行的动作
    Look! Dark clouds are gathering . (正在发生)
    2.表现阶段正在进行,但此刻不一定正在进行的事。
    He usually gets up at 6:00,but this week he is getting up at 7:00.
    (现阶段正在进行,但说话时不一定在起床)
    3.现在进行时的特殊意义
    -表示主观打算常用于 go,come,leave,start,begin 等,位移、趋向动词。
    How long are you staying here (准备停留)
    -表示眼前刚过去的语意即“话音刚落”,适用于tell,say,talk,discuss
    You don’t believe it You know I’m telling the truth.
    -表示安慰、关心、喜欢、讨厌等感情色彩。
    He is always making noises in class. (讨厌)
    -在条件、时间、让步状语从句中表示将来正在进行。
    Don’t bother him if he is reading this time tomorrow.

    二、严格区分进行时与一般时的语义
    1. 持续动词的一般时表持续情况,经常性,习惯性行为或客观存在的事实,进行时表暂时性或有限时刻的持续。
    2.短暂动词的一般时叙述事实,特征,能力而短暂动作进行时描述反复发生,即将发生或刚开始行为。
    3.短暂动词和静态动词一般时表示实际情况客观状态、结果、特征、特性,进行时表未完成含开始或渐进之意。
    The bus stops. (车停了-事实)
    The bus is stopping. (渐渐停下来)
    I love the job. (静态事实)
    I am loving the job. ( 渐渐爱上了)
    4.come,go,leave,start,return,move,reach,sail,fall 等一般时态表客观规定计划,进行时表主观打算推测。
    Flight 254 leaves at 5:30. (表主观打算)
    The plane is taking off an hour later.(主观判断)
    5.现在进行时带always,often,usually,sometimes,等频率副词表感情色彩,一般现在时则没有此用法。
  • 一般现在时的句子转换:
    (1)当句子中有be动词或情态动词时,则把be动词或情态动词(can,could等等)提到主语的前面变成疑问句;在be动词或情态动词后面加not变成否定句.
    例:
    ①陈述句:She is a student.
    疑问句→ Is she a student?
    否定句→ She is not a student.
    ②陈述句:I can swim.
    疑问句→ Can you swim
    否定句→ I can not swim.

    (2)当句子中即没有be动词,也没有情态动词时,则在主语前加助动词do (you,以及复数),does(单数she,he,it)变成问句;
    在主语后谓语动词前加助动词don’t(I,you,以及复数), doesn’t(单数she,he,it)变成否定句,助动词后的动词要变成动词原形。
    例:
    ①陈述句:We get up at 7:00 every morning.
    疑问句→Do you get up at 7:00 every morning?
    否定句→We don’t get up at 7:00 every morning.
    ②陈述句:She has a little brother.
    疑问句→ Does she have a little brother?
    否定句→ She doesn’t have a little brother.

    一般现在时的表达方法:
    主要通过谓语动词的变化和用时间词语来表示,其中最主要的是谓语动词的变化。现在一般时动词变化的规则是:
    1.如果主语是名词复数和第一人称I、 we ,谓语动词不用做任何变化,即仍然用动词原形表示:
    We usually go to school at 7:30. 我们通常7:30上学去。[go]
    My parents give ten yuan to my sister every week.我父母每星期给我妹妹十元钱。[give]

    2.主语是任何一个单数名词或者是第三人称单数,谓语动词要进行必要的变化。特别提一点:不可数名词也算作单数处理。

    3.谓语动词的变化规律是:
    第三人称单数的构成见下表:

    <?xml:namespace prefix = "o" ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

    构成

    举例

    一般情况

    词尾+s

    动词原形

    第三人称单数

    work(工作)
    stop(
    停止)

    works
    stops

    -ch, -sh, s, x, o结尾

    词尾+es

    teach()
    wash(
    )
    dress(
    装扮)
    fix(
    安装)
    go(
    )

    teaches
    washes
    dresses
    fixes
    goes

    辅音字母+y”结尾

    yi,再加es

    fly(飞翔)
    try(
    尝试)

    flies
    tries

    特殊变化的词:
    be (是) - am,is,are
    I am
    she/he/it,名词单数都用 is
    we,you,they,名词复数都用are
    have (有) - have,has
    I,we,you,they,名词复数都用have
    she/he/it is,名词单数都用 has

    助动词,不论单复数、不论什么人称都没有变化,都用 can,may,must,need,ought to 等。
    而且,句子中有了助动词,谓语动词就不需要有任何变化了,即用动词原形表示。例:
    We have six classes every day. 我们每天上六节课。
    I often get up at 6:30. 我经常6:30起床。
    Jack likes Chinese food very much.杰克很喜欢中国饮食。
    We can see some pictures on the wall. 我们能看到墙上的画。

    4.一般现在时常用的时间词语
    常用于一般现在时的词语有 sometimes/usually/often/every day(week,year)/ now/always 等。
    这些时间词语只是辅助作用,这些词语也可用于其它的时态,所以谓语动词变化才是最关键的。
    注意:当表现强烈的感情色彩时,尽管有如 always/never/seldom 等频率副词,但一般在频率副词前加上be动词,后面变为动词的现在分词形式。
    例:My father lose his key again. He is always losing his key.

  • 一般现在时的基本结构:


    一般现在时中当主语为第三人称单数的时,动词上要改为第三人称单数形式。

考点名称:过去完成进行时
  • 过去完成进行时
    就是相对过去的某个时刻来说已经对现在有直接影响并且还在进行的动作。放在间接引语或虚拟语气中时它的时态不能再向前推,向后推是现在完成进行时。
    过去完成进行时是由"had been+现在分词"构成。
    例如:She had been suffering from a bad cold when she took the exam.
                她在考试之前一直患重感冒。

  • 特点:
    1.这种时态很少用在否定句中,而多以过去完成时代替:
    He had not practised English for many years.(普通说法)
    He had not been practising English for many years.(少见)

    2.这种时态还可用在said,supposed等引起的间接引语中,代替现在完成进行时:
    He said,“I have been speaking to John.”= He said that he had been speaking to John.
    He thought,“She was watching me when I passed.”= He thought that she had been watching him when he had passed.

    3.过去完成进行时经常与现在完成进行时混淆。
    现在完成进行时 (The present perfect progressive) 由 have/has been +-ing 分词构成;
    过去完成进行时( The past perfect progressive tenses )由 had been +-ing 分词构成.
    现在/过去完成进行时的用法:
    A. 在某段时间内一直进行的动作用现在完成进行时来强调动作在某段时间里的持续性.
    动作通常有"现在"的结果,要根据上下文来确定到"现在"为止,动作是否还在继续进行.
    同样,过去完成进行时表示在过去更早时间内进行的动作,并对过去某一时刻产生结果。
    B.表示重复动作的现在/过去完成进行时
    我们也可以用完成进行时形式来表示现在或过去经常重复的动作
    注意:过去完成进行时和过去完成时类似,需要有过去这一时间点。

  • 过去完成进行时与过去完成时比较:
    过去完成进行时与过去完成时的用法很相近,它通常表示某个过去正在进行的动作或状态,持续到过去某个时刻,还未完成,一直持续到之后的当前才结束
    He had been waiting for two weeks. He was still waiting.(有一个表示一段时间的状语)
    Up to that time he had been translating those books.(He was still translating at “that time”.)
    He had been writing the letter till two o'clock.
    He was now thirty years old.He had been gambling since he was ten.(He was still gambling at thirty.)
    He had been standing there in the sun.(没有时间状语)
    He had been thinking about his marriage.
    不过这种时态并不一定表示这个过去动作将持续下去:
    He came back at seven.He had been waiting for her two hours.(At seven he did not wait any more.)
    He stopped swimming.He had been swimming for the last three hours.
  • 过去完成进行时用法:
    ①表示过去某一时间之前一直进行的动作。
    过去完成进行时表示动作在过去某一时间之前开始,一直延续到这一过去时间。
    和过去完成时一样,过去完成进行时也必须以一过去时间为前提。
    I had been looking for it for days before I found it.
    这东西我找了好多天才找着的。
    They had only been waiting for the bus a few moments when it came.
    他们只等了一会儿车就来了。

    ②表示反复的动作。
    He had been mentioning your name to me.
    他过去多次向我提到过你的名字。
    You had been giving me everything.
    你对我真是有求必应。

    ③过去完成进行时还常用于间接引语中
    The doctor asked what he had been eating
    .医生问他吃了什么。
    I asked where they had been staying all those days.
    我问他们那些天是呆在哪儿的。

    ④过去完成进行时之后也可接具有“突然”之意的when分句。
    I had only been reading a few minutes when he came in.
    我刚看了几分钟他就进来了。
    She'd only been reviewing her lessons for a short while when her little sister interrupted her.
    她温习功课才一会儿,她妹妹就打断她了。
    I had been sleeping when my friend telephone me.
    我正在睡觉时,我的朋友给我打电话。

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