1. 首页
  2. 英语
  3. 七年级英语
  4. 主谓一致零冠词

Simon with his friends __________ football on Tuesday afternoon.[ ]A. playB. playsC. play theD. play

一、题文

Simon with his friends __________ football on Tuesday afternoon.
[     ]
A. play
B. plays
C. play the
D. plays the

考点提示:主谓一致,零冠词

二、答案

B

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《Simon with his friends __________ football on Tuesday afternoon.[ ]A. playB. playsC. play theD. play》这道题主要考你对 主谓一致零冠词 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:主谓一致,零冠词

考点名称:主谓一致
  • 英语中的一致主要包括主语和谓语在人称和数上的一致、时态一致、名词和其代词的一致。
    主语和谓语保持一致叫主谓一致,即谓语动词的形式必须随着主语单、复数形式的变化而变化。
  • 主谓一致原则:
    1、语法上的一致
    所谓语法一致原则,即主语和谓语的语法形式在人称和数上取得一致。
    谓语的单、复数形式依据主语的单、复数形式而定:主语为复数,谓语动词用复数;主语为单数或者是不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。
    China belongs to the Third World. 中国属于第三世界。
    We are sure he will come. 我们肯定他会来。
    使用语法一致的情况
    (1)当主语是and,both…and连接的并列结构
    如果主语指的是两个或两个以上的人或物,则谓语动词用复数。
    My mother and I have seen the film. 我妈妈和我已看过这部电影。
    Both rice and wheat are grown in this part of China. 在中国的这个地方既种稻子又种小麦。
    注意:由and连接的并列主语前面分别有each,every,no修饰时,其谓语动词用单数形式。
    Every boy and every girl has to receive education in our country. 在我国每一个男女孩子都得受教育。
    No student and no teacher was invited to the party. 师生没有被邀请参加晚会。
    (2)主语后面接说明主语的修饰语
    主语后面接说明主语的修饰语如:
    with,along with,together with,as well as,like,rather than,but,except,besides,including,in addition to,
    谓语动词不受修饰成分的影响,仍保持同主语一致的关系。
    The teacher with two students was at the meeting. 那位老师和两个学生参加了会议。
    The girl as well as the boys has learned to drive a car. 这个姑娘和男孩子一道,也学会了开汽车。
    A library with five thousand books is offered to the nation as a gift.一个有5000册书的图书馆作为礼物赠送给了国家。
    E-mail, as well as telephones, is playing an important part in daily communication.电邮和电话在日常的通信中起着很重要的作用。
    Nobody but Jane knows the secret.只有简知道这个秘密。
    All but one were here just now. 刚才除了一个人外都来了。
    (3)非谓语动词或从句作主语
    非谓语动词 (动词的-ing形式、不定式)或从句作主语时,谓语一般用单数形式。
    When and where to build the new factory is not decided yet.什么时候在什么地方建新工厂还没定下来。
    Checking information is very important. 核实事实是非常重要的。
    To learn foreign languages is not easy. 学习外语并非易事。
    When we will hold the meeting is not decided yet. 我们何时开会尚未决定。
    注意:当what引导主语从句或由 and连接两个动词不定式或动名词作主语时,谓语动词的数应根据意义一致的原则来决定。
    What we need here is money.我们这里需要的是资金。
    What we need here are workers.我们这里需要的是工人。
    Lying and stealing are immoral.说谎与偷窃是不道德的。
    (4)each和复合不定代词作主语
    each和some/any/no//every十body/one/thing构成的复合不定代词:
    anyone、anybody、anything、everyone、everybody、everything、someone、somebody、something、no one、nobody、nothing、each、the other作主语,谓语动词用单数。
    Each is worse than the one before. 一个比一个差。
    Nobody knows the answer. 没有一个人知道这答案。
    Someone wants to see you. 有人想见你。
    Is there anything in the box?箱子里有什么东西吗?
    There is a lot of milk in the bottle. 瓶子里有很多奶。
    (5)“many a +单数名词”作主语
    “many a、(很多)/more than one(不只一个)+单数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
    Many a student has been to Beijing. 很多学生去过北京。
    There is more than one answer to your question. 你的问题不只有一个答案。
    (6)“one of+复数名词十定语从句”之前有the等限定词和修饰语
    “one of+复数名词十定语从句”之前有the only,the very,the等限定词和修饰语时,定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。
    Tom is the only one of those boys who is willing to help the old man.
    汤姆是唯一的一个愿意帮助那个老人的男孩。
    He is the only one of the students who has been a winner of scholarship for three years.他是这三年来唯一的一个获得奖学金的学生。
    注意:如没有这些限定词和修饰语,定语从句的谓语动词采用复数形式。
    Tom is one of the boys who are always ready to help others. 汤姆是个随时愿意帮助别人的男孩。
    (7)由两个部分组成的物体名词作主语
    英语中有些由两个部分组成的物体名称如g1asses(眼镜),scissors(剪刀),shorts(短裤),shoes(鞋子),trousers(裤子)等作主语,其后的谓语动词用复数形式。
    His glasses were broken, so he can't see well. 他的眼镜碎了,因而看不清楚。
    His trousers are made of cotton. 他的裤子是棉布的。
    注意:若这类名词前带有pair等表示单位的名词时,则以这些名词的单、复数形式决定动词的形式。
    Two pairs of trousers are missing. 两条裤子不见了。
    This pair of shoes is not on sale. 这双鞋不出售。

    2、意义上的一致
    意义上的一致是指谓语动词与主语的一致取决于主语所表达的意义。若主语形式上为复数,而意义上是单数,动词要用单数;
    若主语形式上为单数,而意义上为复数,则动词用复数。
    The United States is in North America. 美国在北美洲。
    The police are looking into the matter. 警察正在调查此事。
    使意义上的一致的情况
    (1)由and连接两个并列主语
    其后的谓语动词一般用复数形式。但如果两个单数名词指同一个人、同一事物、单一概念时,谓语动词要用单数,有时两个名词共用一个冠词。
    The worker and writer has written a new novel. 这位工人兼作家写了一部新小说。(两个名词共用一个冠词)
    There is a journalist and writer living in America whose name is Alex Haley. 在美国有一个名叫亚利克斯?哈利的记者兼作家。
    Truth and honesty is always the best policy. 真诚总是上策。
    注意:用and连接起来的两个单数主语,谓语动词可以是单数,也可以是复数。
    Three and five makes /make eight.三加五等于八。
    Time and tide wait/waits for no man .岁月不等人。
    (2)形复意单的名词作主语
    ①复数形式的专有名词(表示国家、城市、机构、组织以及书籍、报纸、杂志等)做主语,通常作为整体看待,谓语动词用单数。
    The United States is in North America.美国在北美洲。
    The Arabian Nights is read all over the world.《天方夜谭》是流传世界各地的名著。
    The New York Times has a wide circulation.《纽约时报》销路很广。
    注意:表示山脉、群岛、瀑布等的专有名词和以复数形式出现的表示同姓的一家人或同名、同姓的若干人,谓语也用复数。
    The Alps rise over 4 countries.阿尔卑斯山脉跨越了四国。
    Niagara Falls are not as high as Victoria Falls.尼亚加拉瀑布没有维多利亚瀑布高。
    The Smiths were also invited.史密斯一家人也受到了邀请。
    There are 3 Marys and 2 Roberts in my class.我班有三个叫玛丽、两个叫罗伯特的学生。
    ②以-ics结尾表示学科的名词做主语,通常表示单数意义,谓语动词用单数形式。这类名词有:
    physics, politics, mathematics, economics, athletics, electronics等。
    Politics is now taught in all schools.现在各学校都开设政治课。
    Economics is a science of the way in which industry and trade produce and use wealth.经济学是研究工业、贸易生财和用财之道。
    注意:当这些动词表示有关方面的活动、情况、见解、原理等意思时,谓语动词需用复数形式。
    What are his politics?他的政见如何?
    The economics of national growth are of the greatest importance to all modern governments.国家发展经济的原理对现代各国政府都重要。
    ③news,maths,plastics,physics,works,means(方法),the United States等虽然以-s结尾,但意义上作为单数看待。
    “News of victories keeps pouring in as our army advances,” the company commander said. 集团军司令说:”
    随着我们军队的推进胜利的消息接踵而至。”
    Mathematics/Physics is a required subject for us.
    数学/物理是我们必修的科目。
    Every possible means has been used to prevent the air pollution,but the sky is still not clear.
    所有可能的直至污染的方法都用了,但天空还是不晴朗的。
    ④成对的名词做主语时用单数形式。
    Bread and butter is a daily food in the West .面包抹黄油是西方人每天的食品。
    His gratitude and devotion to the Party is endless.他无限感觉,无限忠于党。
    ⑤“one and a half +复数名词”做主语,谓语动词用单数。
    One and a half pears is left on the table .一只半梨剩在桌子上。
    One and a half days is all I can spare.一天半是我所能挤出的全部时间。
    注意:“one or two+复数名词”做主语,谓语动词用复数。
    One or two days are enough to see the city.参观该市一两天就足够了。
    There are one or two things I want to talk over with you .我有一两件事想跟你商量。
    (3)有生命的集体名词作主语
    有生命的集体名词 (如people,police,cattle,militia)作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。
    Cattle are also kept. 还养了一些牛。
    There are many people there. 那里有很多人。
    The police are looking for the thief. 公安人员在搜寻那个小偷。
    All the people of the world want peace.全世界人民都渴望和平。
    注意:family,team,class,government,audience,crew,committee等集体名词,如果作整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式;
    如果作个别成员看待,谓语动词用复数形式。people作“民族”解时,作单数用。
    Zhang’s family is rather big, with twelve people in all.张家很大,一共12口人。
    The family are sitting at the breakfast table. 这家人正坐在早餐桌旁。
    My family is a large one. 我家是个大家庭。
    The class are doing experiment in the lab. 全班同学正在实验室里做实验。
    The class has won the honour. 这个班获得了荣誉。
    The Chinese people is a great people.中华民族是一个伟大的民族。
    (4) 名词化的形容词作主语
    名词化的形容词作主语,按照意义一致的原则决定谓语动词的单、复数形式。
    如果指一类人,谓语动词用复数形式,如果指一个人或抽象概念,谓语动词用单数形式。
    这类形容词有:old, young, rich, poor, blind, deaf, dead, sick等。
    The rich are not always happy. 富人也有不开心的时候。
    The wounded is a policeman. 受伤者是一名警察。
    The beautiful is not always the same as the good. 漂亮的不一定就等于好。
    (5) 表示时间、距离、金钱、重量等的复数名词作主语
    表示时间、距离、金钱、重量、度量、容量、温度等的复数名词做主语,通常看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式。
    Twenty years has passed since we left school. 我们离开学校已经20年了。
    Ten thousand dollars is a lot of money. 一万美元是一大笔钱。
    Two months is quite a long time. 两个月时间是很长的。
    Two hours is enough for us to do this experiment.我们做这个实验两个小时就够了。
    Thirty kilometres is a good distance.30公里是一个相当远的距离。
    注意:如果说话人侧重一个个的个体,谓语动词用复数形式。
    Twenty years have passed since we parted.自从我们分手以后20年己经过去了。
    (6)“a number of十复数可数名词”与“the number of十复数可数名词”作主语
    “a number of十复数可数名词”表示 “一些、许多”的意思,谓语动词用复数;
    “the number of十复数可数名词”表示 “……的数目、数量”,谓语动词用单数。
    The number of people invited was fifty, but a number of them were absent for different reasons.
    邀请来的人数是50,但很多人因不同的原因没来。
    A number of books are missing from the library.
    图书馆丢了许多书。
    The number of workers in this factory is increasing.
    这家工厂的工人数目正在增加。
    (7)none of和neither of后跟复数名词或复数代词作主语
    none of和neither of后跟复数名词或复数代词时,有时作单数看待,有时作复数看待,主要根据说话人的意思决定。
    None of them has arrived yet at the settlement. 他们没有一个到达新住宅区。
    None of them have arrived yet. 他们都还没到。
    (8)“分数/百分数+of短语”作主语
    “分数/百分数+of短语”作主语,这时要以of短语中的名词是否为复数而定。
    Two fifths of the land in that district is covered with trees and grass.该地区五分之二的土地为树木和草所覆盖。
    89% of smokers are male. 89%的吸烟者是男性。
    In the USA, 75% of the grain is used to feed animals. 在美国,75%的谷物用来喂养动物。
    Two-thirds of the earth's surface is sea. 地球表面的2/3是海洋。
    Two-thirds of the people were against the plan. 2/3的人都反对核计划。
    (9)表示部分概念或不定数量的名词或代词作主语
    表示部分概念或不定数量的名词或代词作主语,谓语动词用单数还是复数,应根据后接名词的单、复数形式而定。
    这些名间或代词有all,any,enough,half,more,most,the rest,part,some等。
    The rest of the buildings are easy to get to. 其余的建筑物并不难上。
    The rest of his life was happy. 他的晚年生活很幸福。
    Most of my time was spent in reading. 我大部分时间用来读书。
    Most of the people are aware of it. 大部分人都知道它。
    Some of the sugar was spilled on the floor. 一些糖散落在地上。
    Some of the apples were spilled on the floor. 一些苹果散落在地上。
    (10)两个主语,一个肯定,一个否定,谓语动词与肯定主语相一致。
    The parents, and not the son, were missing.失踪者不是儿子,而是他的双亲。

    3、邻近原则
    邻近原则是指谓语动词要与它最邻近的名词或代词保持人称与数的一致。
    Neither he nor I am a student. 他和我都不是学生。
    There is a pen , two chairs and a desk. 有一支钢笔,两把椅子和一张桌子。
    这主要有以下几种情况。
    (1)由or,either…or等连接的并列结构作主语
    由or、either…or、nor、neither…nor、not only…but also、not…but连接的并列主语,通常按照就近一致原则,谓语动词的单、复数形式依照靠近它的主语而定。
    Either you or the headmaster is to hand out the prizes to these gifted students at the meeting.要么你要么校长在会议上对这些天才的学生颁奖。
    Neither he nor I have finished the experiment. 他和我都没有做完试验。
    Either his friends or his brother is wrong. 不是他的朋友们错了,就是他哥哥错了。
    Not only I but also Jane and Mary are tired of having one examination after another.不仅我而且简和玛丽都讨厌一个接一个的考试。
    Not only the teacher but also his students have studied the question. 不仅老师而且他的学生们都研究了这个问题。
    (2)在主谓倒装句时
    在主谓倒装句中,主语并列,谓语动词的人称和数与最近的主语相一致。由here或there引导的句子,若有并列主语,谓语也与最靠近的那个主语一致。
    There is a desk, a table and three chairs in the room. 房间里有一张书桌、一张饭桌和3把椅子。
    There are three chairs, a desk and a computer in the room. 房间里有3把椅子、一张书桌和一台电脑。
    Where is your wife and children to stay while you are away?你不在时妻子和孩子呆在哪儿?
  • "表里不一"现象:
    主谓一致中的"表里不一"现象
    和主语必须在人称和数上保持一致,最基本的原则是:单数主语用单数动词,复数主语用复数动词.但在实际使用当中情况比较复杂,现在学生常犯的主谓一致错误归纳整理如下
    1,"more than one +名词"作主语时,谓语动词常用单数.例如:
    More than one teacher gets the flowers. 不止一个教师得到了花.
    2,"many a +名词"作主语时,从意义上看是复数,但谓语动词常用单数.例如:
    Many a student has been sent to plant trees. 很多学生被派去植树.
    3,"half of,the rest of,most of,all of及百分数或分数+of 等后接名词"作主语时,谓语动词形式根据of后的名词而定.例如:
    Three fourths of the surface of the earth is covered with water.地球表面四分之三为水所覆盖.
    4,all指人时,动词用复数;all指物时,动词用单数.例如:
    "All are present and all is going well." 所有人全部到场了,一切进展顺利
    5,what引导的主语从句,谓语动词可视表语而定:表语是单数名词时,动词用单数,相反,则用复数.例如:
    What they want to get are a number of good books.他们想得到的是大量的好书.
    6,and连接的两个单数名词前若用each,every,no修饰,该名词短语作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式.例如:
    No book and no pen is found in the schoolbag.书包里没有书和钢笔.
    7,当主语后面有as well as,with,along with,together with,but,like,rather than,except,逗号加and连接几个名字等引导的短语时,谓语动词要与最前面的主语保持一致.例如:
    My father as well as his workmates has been to Beijing. 我父亲和他的同事曾去过北京.
    8,each作主语的同位语时,谓语动词由主语来决定,与each无关.例如:
    They each have a bike. 他们每人有一辆自行车.
    9,动词不定式,动词-ing形式短语作主语时,谓语动词常用单数.例如:
    Going out for a walk after supper is a good habit.晚饭后出去散步是一个好习惯.
    10,the following作主语时,谓语动词的数与后面名词的数保持一致.例如:
    The following are good examples下面是一些好例子.
    11,以-ics结尾的学科名词,如politics,physics,mathematics等作主语时,谓语动词用单数.以-s结尾的名词news,works,plastics等同属此类.例如:
    Politics is now taught in all schools. 现在各学校都开设政治课.
    当以-ics结尾的学科名词表示"学科"以外的意义时,用作复数,如:mathematics(运算能力)politics(政治观点)economics(经济意义)等
    12,有些用来表示由两个对应部分组成一体的名词复数(trousers,glasses,shoes.shorts.scissors.scales等)作主语时,前面若有"一条","一副","一把"之类的单位词,动词用单数;若没有单位词或单位词是复数,则谓语动词用复数.例如:
    The shoes are all right. 这些鞋子都很合适.
    还有一些以-s结尾的名词通常用复数:arms(武器).clothes.contents.minites(记录).remains(遗体).thanks等
    13,"one and a half +名词"作主语时,谓语动词要用复数.例如:
    One and a half apples are left on the table. 桌子上有一个半苹果.
    14,"One or two more +复数名词"作主语时,谓语动词用复数.例如:
    One or two persons are sent there to help them do the work. 要派一两个人到那儿去给他们帮忙.
    15,"one of+复数名词+ 定语从句"结构中,定语从句的谓语动词要用复数;而在"the only one of +复数名词+定语从句"的结构中,"the one of + 复数名词+定语从句"定语从句的谓语动词要用单数.例如:
    He is one of the students who get there on time.他是准时到达那里的学生之一.
    16,表示时间,距离,金钱等的复数名词作主语表达一个整体概念时,谓语动词常用单数,但若强调数量,谓语动词可用复数.例如:
    One million dollars is a lot of money. 一百万美元是一大笔钱.

  • 以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致:
    英语可数名词的规则复数形式是在词尾加-s或-es,但是有一些以-s结尾的名词并不是可数名词。
    它们用法多样,造成了实际使用上的困难,以下详述了以-s结尾的名词作主语的主谓一致问题。
    (一)以-s结尾的疾病名称作主语的主谓一致问题
    (二)以-s结尾的游戏名称作主语的主谓一致问题
    (三)以-s结尾的地理名称作主语的主谓一致问题
    (四)以-ics结尾的学科名称作主语的主谓一致问题
    (五)其它以-s结尾的名词的主谓一致问题

    集合名词的主谓一致原则:

    集合名词作主语时,主谓一致关系是一个较为复杂的问题.对此类问题我们可以从"数"的角度分为四类.
    1)单数—复数型.凡是有复数词尾变化形式的集合名词都属于此类。如:
    a class—classes; a family—families; a government—governments; an army—armies; a people—peoples; a group—groups; a crowd—crowds; a crew—crews等。
    这类集合名词强调的是整体性,即当作一个整体或多个整体来看待。属于这类集合名词的单数作主语时,谓语动词用单数;
    复数形式作主语时,谓语动词用复数。
    【例如】
    A big crowd often gathers on the square every morning.
    每个上午 一大群人经常聚集在广场上
    The government has decided to pass the bill.
    政府已决定通过这一法案
    There are huge crowds in the streets on Sunday.
    星期天有大群大群的人在街上。
    There are many English-speaking peoples in the world.
    在世界上有许多讲英语的人
    但应注意,这类集合名词的单数形式有时表示复数概念,所以这些集合名词的单数形式也可归为"单复同形型"中.
    2)单数型.这类集合名词表示的是人或事物的整体,即把这类人或事物的全部包括在内,所以只有单数形式.如作主语,谓语动词常用单数。
    这类名词常见的有:humanity,mankind,proletariat等.
    【例如】The proletariat is the greatest class in the history of mankind. In the fields of production and scientific experiment,mankind makes constant progress.
    3)复数型.这类集合名词在形式和内容上是相互矛盾的,就是说它们只有单数形式,但表达的都是复数概念。它强调的是集体中的个体性.这类名词有:police,cattle,faculty,flock,machinery,vermin,personnel等.它们作主语时,谓语动词要用复数.
    【例如】The police have caught the murder.
    Our personnel are very highly trained.
    The vermin are very dangerous.
    4)单复同形型.这类集合名词的单数形式既可表示单数也可表示复数.作主语时,用单数动词或复数动词均可,有时意义区别不大.
    【例如】The school teaching staff are (is) excellent.
    The public is (are) requested not to litter in the park.
    The teaching profession claim(s) to be badly paid.
    这类集合名词常见的有:class,family,team,crew,board,herd,committee,party,jury,enemy,audience等.
    根据说话人的心理意向若把这个集合名词所代表的人或事物看作一个整体,就认为是单数,用单数动词;
    若把它所代表的人或事物看作若干个个体的话,就认为其为复数,用复数动词。
    试比较:The football team is playing well.
    那个足球队打得非常漂亮.
    The football team are shavings bath and are then coming back here for tea. 足球队员们正在洗澡,然后来这里吃茶点。
    The family is a very happy one.那个家庭是一个非常幸福的家庭。
    That family are very pleased about the news of William's success. 全家人对威廉的成功都感到很高兴。

    巧记主谓一致原则:
    单单复复最常见,集体名词谓用单,如若强调其成员,复数谓语记心间。
    有些名词谓常复,people,police即这般。主语单数后接介,谓语单数介无关,
    many a作主语也如此,谓语动词应用单。or、nor、but also、there be,近主原则挂嘴边。
    关系代词定主语,谓语根据先行词判。不定式短语、动名词,主语从句谓全单。
    时间、货币与距离,谓语多单复少见,rest,means,fol1owing等,意义决定其复、单。
    none,all,half of等,of之宾语定答案。还有分数、百分数,仍据of之宾定复、单。
    代词all指人谓复数,all指事情谓用单。量词用法请注意,谓语要随量词变。
    and连接两名词,身兼两职一定冠,no,each,every后单名,两件(种)事(物)系一概念,
    以上情况请记清,谓语动词全用单。形容词带the一类人,姓氏复数加定冠,
    -s结尾的海峡、山脉与群岛,谓语用复勿用单。neither,either,each,用作主语谓全单。
考点名称:零冠词
  • 零冠词
    是指名词前面没有不定冠词(a、an)、定冠词(the),也没有其他限定词的现象。零冠词也是冠词的一种。
    例如:
    This is my book.
    Bread is made from flour.
    Let's go and play basketball.
    He is head of the factory.
    注意:有些名词前用the,或不用the,其意义有所不同。例如:
    go to school  上学    
    go to the school 到学校去
    in future 今后,将来  
    in the future 将来  
  • 零冠词的用法
    1.表示抽象概括意义时,不可数名词和复数名词使用零冠词,例如:
    (/)Books are my best friends.书是我的好朋友。
    (/)Cotton feels soft.棉花摸起来柔软。
    (/)Water boils at 100℃.水在摄氏100度沸腾。
    比较:The water in this river is undrinkable.这条河的水不可饮用。

    2.专有名词通常使用零冠词,例如:
    (/)Lu Xun is a great Chinese writer.鲁迅是一位伟大的中国作家。
    (/)London is the capital of England.伦敦是英国的首都。
    (/)China is a developing socialist country.中国是一个发展中的社会主义国家。
    (注意:组合国名或缩写国名前加定冠词,如:the United States 美国;the U.K 英国)

    3.按照习惯下列各类名词使用零冠词:
    1)季节、月份、星期以及节假日(中国传统节日除外,详细请查阅“定冠词”)等名词前,例:
    (/)Summer begins in June in this part of the country.这个地区夏天从六月份开始。
    We have no classes on(/) Sunday.星期日我们不上课。
    There are a lot of (/)people shopping at (/)Christmas.在圣诞节有很多人购买东西。
    2)三餐饭菜的名词,例:
    have (/)supper 吃晚饭
    come to (/)dinner 去吃饭
    3)语言、运动、游戏等名词,例:
    She speaks (/)Chinese.她说汉语。
    He plays (/)football.他踢足球。
    Let’s have a game of (/)chess.咱俩下盘棋吧。
    4)在某些意义有改变的名词前要使用零冠词,例:
    He has gone to (/)school.(to learn)他去上学了。
    They were in (/)church just now.(to worship)现在他们在做礼拜。
    同样, in hospital是“住院(治疗)”,in prison是“服刑”,等等。
    注意:如果在这类名词前加冠词,则表示去那里干与之无关的事,例:
    go to the school 可理解为去学校看望人,而不是“学习”。

    4.在表示职位、头衔、身份等名词前,例:
    (/)Professor Wang 王教授
    (/)Doctor Tompson 汤普生医生
    (/)President Lincoln 林肯总统
    (/)Dean of the English Department 英语系主任

    5.泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词(泛指的复数名词非零冠词):
    They are teachers. 他们是教师。
    当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词;
    I can't write without pen or pencil.没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。

    6.当by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词,例:
    by bus,by train;

    7.有些个体名词不用冠词,如:
    (/)school,(/)college,(/)prison,(/)market,(/)hospital,(/)bed,(/)table,(/)class,(/)town,(/)church,(/)court
    等个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的不同含义:
    go to hospital 去医院看病 ;
    go to the hospital去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的)
    in bed 生病卧床 ;
    in the bed 在床上
    in table 就餐 ;
    in the table\\tables 在桌旁

    8.不用冠词的序数词:
    a. 序数词前有物主代词
    b. 序数词作副词:
    He came (/)first in the race.
    c. 在固定词组中:
    at (/或the) first,first of all,
    from first to last
    注:三餐饭前带有形容词修饰时,应加冠词:
    have a quick breakfast .
    当球类指具体事物时,应加冠词:
    where is the football ?

    9.某些中国乐器前面不加冠词,例如:
    play (/)erhu;play (/)dizi ( 弹古筝 play the zither 吹笛子 play the flute)

    10.有些物质名词和抽象名词前永远用零冠词,即使有形容词,也用零冠词。常见的有:
    (/)weather,(/)progress,(/)fun,(/)advise,(/)news,(/)information,(/)luck,(/)furniture,(/)wealth,(/)honesty 等。
    另外,man 表示“人类”和word 表示:“音讯时一般不加冠词,如:
    It is well known that (/)man has a very close relationship with (/)environment。众所周知,人类与环境关系非常密切。

    11.在表示颜色和语言的名词前用零冠词,例:
    She is in(/)red 她穿红色衣服(=She is in a red dress)

    12.特殊动词后用零冠词,如:
    He turns(/)a father.
    (/)Student as he is.
    注:为了区分不加冠词和加零冠词的两种情况,本帖特别使用表示零冠词的“(/)”符号表示零冠词。

  • 零冠词使用口诀及注释:
    下列情况免冠词,代词限定名词前,
    专有名词不可数,科球类三餐饭,
    复数名词表泛指,两季星期月份前,
    颜色语种和国名,称呼习语和头衔
    注释:
    1.下列情况免冠词,代词限定名词前,
    代词限定词放在名词的前面时,名词不加冠词
    例:my book; any book
    2.专有名词不可数,科球类三餐饭,
    1)不可数名词,专有名词通常不加冠词。
    例:Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母
    2)在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词,如have breakfast,play chess。
    3.复数名词表泛指,两季星期月份前,
    例:We go to school from Monday to Friday.  我们从星期一到星期五都上课。
    4.颜色语种和国名,称呼习语和头衔
    1)颜色语种和国名如 in black; in English; in Canada
    2)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词。
    例:The guards took the American to General Lee. 士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。

  • 习惯用零冠词的固定短语: 
    一、介词+零冠词+名词
    at present
    beyond hope of
    by chance
    by day
    by hand
    by rule
    face to face
    from beginning
    hand in hand
    in battle
    in danger of
    in defence of
    in fact
    in fear
    in hopes of
    in issue
    in place of
    in spit of
    in time
    on account of
    on business
    on earth
    on credit
    on foot
    on hand
    out of date
    side by side
    with credit
    二、动词+零冠词+名词
    cast anchor
    catch fire
    change gear
    get fun
    give battle
    give way
    lose heart
    make way
    send word
    set sail
    三、动词+零冠词+名词+介词
    catch sight of
    do duty for
    find fault with
    make use of
    set fire to
    take hold of
    take exception to
    take part in
    take care of

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