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  3. 七年级英语
  4. 物主代词人称代词it 的用法

---Could you tell me_____in today’s newspaper? ---Sorry,_______.A something special ;special nothing

一、题文

---Could you tell me_____in today’s newspaper?
---Sorry,_______.
A  something special ;special nothing   B special something;  special nothing
C  anything special ; something special  D something special ; nothing special

考点提示:物主代词,人称代词,it 的用法

二、答案

D
本题考查形容词修饰不定代词的使用。形容词修饰不定代词something或nothing位于其后,本题的含义为你能告诉我在今天报纸上的特别事情吗?对不起,没有什么特别事情,something表示某事情,nothing表示没事情,都位于形容词special之后,故本题选D。

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《---Could you tell me_____in today’s newspaper? ---Sorry,_______.A something special ;special nothing》这道题主要考你对 物主代词人称代词it 的用法 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:物主代词,人称代词,it 的用法

考点名称:物主代词
  • 物主代词:
    表示所有关系的代词叫做物主代词,也叫人称代词的所有格。
    物主代词分为形容词性物主代词和名词性物主代词两种。
    物主代词有人称和数的变化。第三人称单数的物主代词还有性别的变化。
  • 物主代词的用法:
    物主代词既有表示所属的作用又有指代作用,例如:
    John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk.
    约翰割破了手指,显而易见,他桌子上有个破碎的玻璃杯。

    物主代词有形容词性(my, your等)和名词性(mine, yours等)两种:
    形容词性的物主代词属于限定词。
    名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的 -'s属格结构,例如:
    Jack's cap 意为 The cap is Jack's.
    His cap     意为 The cap is his.

    形容词性物主代词用法:
    1. 形容词性物主代词相当于形容词,在句中只能用作定语,后面必须跟名词。名词性物主代词常用来避免和前面已提及的名词重复。
    相当于【形容词性物主代词+名词】。例如:
    Is that yourbike? 那是你的自行车吗?
    My pen is quite different from his.
    2. 如果名词前用了形容词性物主代词,就不能再用冠词(a, an, the)、指示代词(this, that, these, those)等修饰词了。例如:
    这是他的书桌。This is his desk.
    3. 与形容词一起修饰名词时,形容词性物主代词要放在形容词的前面。例如:
    his English books他的英语书。
    their Chinese friends他们的中国朋友。
    4. 汉语中经常会出现"我妈妈","你们老师"等这样的语言现象,虽然代词用的是"我"、"你们",但实际意义仍是"我的"、"你们的",
    所以在英译时,注意要用形容词性物主代词"my","your"。
    例如:你妈妈在家吗?
    误:Is you mother at home?
    正:Is yourmother at home?
    5. it's与its读音相同,he's与his读音相似,但使用时需注意它们的区别(it's和he's分别是it is和he is的缩略形式,但its 和his 却是形容词性物主代词) 。
    例如: It's a bird. Its name is Polly. 它是一只鸟。它的名字叫波利。
    He's a student. His mother is a teacher. 他是一名学生。他妈妈是一位教师
    口诀:
    有“名”则"形“,无“名”则“名”。
    意思是:后面是名词的话,前面就要用 形容词性物主代词。后面没有名词的话,就用名词性物主代词。

    名词性物主代词的句法功能:
    a. 作主语,例如:
    May I use your pen? Yours works better.
    我可以用一用你的钢笔吗? 你的比我的好用。
    b.作宾语,例如:
    I love my motherland as much as you love yours.
    我爱我的祖国就像你爱你的祖国一样深。
    c.作介词宾语,例如:
    You should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours.
    你应当按我所用的词义去解释我说的话,而不能按你自己的意义去解释。
    d.作主语补语,例如:
    The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你,属于你,属于你。
    名词性物主代词可以用在介词of的后面,相当于“of+名词所有格”。
    口诀
    有“名”则"形“,无“名”则“名”。
    注:
    后面是名词的话,前面就要用 形容词性物主代词。
    后面没有名词的话,就用名词性物主代词.

  • 形容词性物主代词与名词性物主代词的区别:
    一.形容词性物主代词起形容词的作用,用在名词前。
    例:
    1. This is my book.这是我的书。
    2. We love our motherland.我们热爱我们的祖国。

    二.名词性物主代词起名词的作用。
    例:
    1. Look at the two pencils. The red one is yours and the blue one is mine.
    看那两支铅笔,红的是你的,蓝的是我的。
    2. He likes my pen. He doesn't like hers.
    他喜欢我的钢笔。不喜欢她的。
    3. 注意:在使用名词性物主代词时,必须有特定的语言环境,也就是要省略的名词。
    例:
    It's hers.是她的。
    (单独使用大家不知是怎么回事,不可以这样用)
    There is a book. It's hers.那有本书。是她的。
    (先提及,大家才明白)
    4. 名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词
    为避免重复使用名词,有时可用“名词性物主代词”来代替“形容词性物主代词+名词”的形式。
    例:
    My bag is yellow, her bag is red, his bag is blue and your bag is pink.
    为避免重复使用bag,可写成My bag is yellow, hers is red, his is blue and yours is pink.

  • 物主代词“形”变“名”歌:
    形物代变名物代
    掌握规律变得快
    多数词尾加-- s
    my,its,his要除外
    my把y来变成i
    接着再把 ne 带
    his,its 不用变
    词形一样莫奇怪

考点名称:人称代词
  • 人称代词:
    人称代词是用来表示人的代词,有单数和复数之分,有主格和宾格之分。人称代词的主格在句中作主语;人称代词的宾格在句中作宾语,也可作动词或介词的宾语。  
    主格:I, we, you, he, she, it, they在句子中作主语
    宾格:me, us, you, him, her, it, them在句子中作宾语
    He and I are in the same class. 我和他在同一个班级。
    Can you see them in the street? 你能看见他们在街上吗?
  • 人称代词在句中的作用:
    1)主格作主语。如:
    I am Chinese.我是中国人。
    2)宾格作宾语,放在及物动词或介词之后,有时还可以在口语中用作表语。如:
    ①I don't know her.我不认识她。(动词宾语)
    ②What's wrong with it?它怎么了?(介词宾语)
    ③-Open the door,please.
    3)作表语
    作表语一般用主格, 但在口语中也常用宾格
    I saw at once it was her.我一下子看到了她。
    It's me.请开门,是我。(表语)
    4)作同位语
    作同位语是用宾格
    We ,us ,there,will be able to fulfill the task.我们三人就能完成这项任务。

  • 主宾格的替换:
    一、宾格代替主格
    a.在简短对话中,当人称代词单独使用或在not后,多用宾语。
      ---- I like English. --我喜欢英语。
      ---- Me too. --我也喜欢。
      ---- Have more wine? --再来点酒喝吗?
      ---- Not me. --我可不要了。
    b.在表示比较的非正式的文体中,常用宾格代替主格。但如果比较状语的谓语保留,则主语只能用主格。
      He is taller than I/me.
      He is taller than I am.

    二、主格代替宾格
    a.在介词but,except后,有时可用主格代替宾格。
    b.在电话用语中常用主格。
      ---- I wish to speak to Mary. --我想和玛丽通话。
      ---- This is she. --我就是玛丽。
    注意:在动词be或to be后的人称代词视其前面的名词或代词而定。
      I thought it was she. 我以为是她。 (主格----主格)
      I thought it to be her. (宾格----宾格)
      I was taken to be she. 我被当成了她。 (主格----主格)
    They took me to be her.他们把我当成了她。 (宾格----宾格)
  • 人称代词用法:
    一、人称代词的宾格在句中作宾语,往往用在动词或介词后面。
    例:1.Listen to me,Dad.
    2.Peter is sitting behind me.
    3.Let me got here now.
    4.Give me an orange,please.

    二、you既是"你"或"你们"的主格,又是它们的宾格;her既是"她"的所有格,又是它的宾格。我们可以根据它们在句子中的位置来判断它们属于主格、所有格还是宾格。

    三、and是一个我们常用来连接两个词的连接词。它虽然与介词with有同样的意思,但它的前后可以是人称代词的主语,也可以是人称代词的宾格,而with只能跟人称代词的宾格。
    如:You and I are going to school.
      You are going to school with me.

    四、第三人称代词单数:er,sie,es 及 复数 sie 可指代人或物以及其它抽象概念等。此时,它们的性,数,格要与被指代的名词一致。

    人称代词用法口诀:

    人称代词分主/宾,只有八对要区分。
    你(们)、它主/宾同一形,其余主/宾须分清。
    谓语之前主格填,动/介之后宾格跟,
    口语运用最灵活,表语也可用宾格。
    人称代词并列现,注意顺序礼貌见,
    二一、三一、二三一,第一人称最谦虚,
    若把错误责任担,第一人称须当先。
    动前主格动后宾,名前形容介后宾;
    如果名词含在内,选用名物代就行。

    人称代词并列用法的排列顺序:
    1)单数人称代词并列作主语时,其顺序为:
    第二人称→第三人称→第一人称
    即:you and I;he/she/itandI;you,he/she/it and I
    2)复数人称代词作主语时,其顺序为:
    第一人称→第二人称→第三人称
    即:we and you;you and they;we,you and they

  • 人称代词的变格形式

    人称

    单数

    复数

    主格

    宾格

    主格

    宾格

    第一人称

    I

    me

    we

    us

    第二人称

    you

    you

    you

    you

    第三人称

    he
    she
    it

    him
    her
    it

    they 

    them

  • 人称代词的形式:
    在一般现在时中,当主语是第三人称单数时,谓语动词要用第三人称单数形式,即常在动词原形后加-s或-es  
    一、人称代词he,she,it是第三人称单数。如: 
    He likes watching TV. 他喜欢看电视。 
    She has lunch at twelve. 她十二点吃午餐。 
    It looks like a cat. 它看起来像只猫。 

    二、单个人名、地名或称呼作主语;是第三人称单数。如: 
    ①Han Mei looks like her mother. 韩梅看起来像她的母亲。 
    ②Beijing is in China. 北京在中国。 
    ③Uncle Wang often makes cakes. 王叔叔经常做蛋糕。 

    三、单数可数名词或"this / that / the+单数可数名词"作主语时,是第三人称单数。如: 
    ①A horse is a useful animal. 马是有用的动物。 
    ②This book is yours. 这本书是你的。 
    ③That car is red. 那辆小汽车是红色的。 ④The cat is Lucy's. 这只猫是露茜的。 

    四、不定代词someone,somebody,nobody,everything,something等及指示代词this,that作主语时,是第三人称单数。如: 
    ①Everyone is here. 大家到齐了。 
    ②There is something wrong with the watch. 这块手表有毛病。 
    ③This is a pen. 这是一支钢笔。 
    ④That is an eraser. 那是一块橡皮擦。 

    五、不可数名词作主语时为第三人称单数。如: 
    ①The milk is in the glass. 牛奶在玻璃杯里。 
    ②The bread is very small. 那面包很小。 

    六、当数字或字母作主语时,看作第三人称单数。如: 
    ①"6" is a lucky number. "6"是个吉利数字。 
    ②"I" is a letter. "I"是个字母。
考点名称:it 的用法
  • “It”用法及其句型和固定搭配,是英语语法的重点、难点,又是近几年考试的热点,因此在复习中应给予足够的重视。
  • It 句型归纳:
    1. It is +adj.(+for sb./sth.) + to do sth.
    用于此句型的形容词有:easy, hard, difficult,possible, important, impossible, necessary, good, bad, exciting, interesting, surprising等。如:
     It is necessary to change your job.
     It was very hard for them to walk such a long way in the snow.
    2.It is +n.(+for sb./sth.) + to do sth.
    用于此句型的名词有: pity, shame, pleasure, one’s duty, one’s job, fun, joy, good manners, bad manners等。如:
     It is a pity for you to have missed such a wonderful play.
     It is bad manners for the young to take up the seats for the old.
    3.It is +adj.+of sb.+to do sth.
    此句型中的形容词主要描述某人的品德、特征。能用于该句型的形容词有: kind, nice, wise,
    silly, polite, impolite, friendly, foolish, clever等。如:
     How silly it was of you to give up such a good chance!
     It is friendly of the family to try to make me feel at home in their house.
    4.It is +adj.(+n.)+doing sth.
    此句型中的形容词和名词常见的有:no/little use, no/much good, useless等。如:
     It’s no use crying over spilt milk.
    5.It takes sb.+一段时间+to do sth. 表示“做某事花费某人多长时间”。如:
    It took us half an hour to ride to the town by the sea.
    6.It is +及物动词的过去分词+that从句
    此句型中常见的及物动词的过去分词有:said, told, known, reported, recorded, thought, believed, considered等。如:
    It is reported that the Russian President will visit China next week.
    7.It +不及物动词+that从句
    此句型中不及物动词常见的有:seem, happen, appear, matter等。如:
     It seems that there will be a heavy snow tomorrow.
     It happened that I met my good friends in the museum yesterday.
    8.强调句型:It is+被强调部分+that/who从句
    在使用强调句型时要注意,指人时可以用who或that,其它情况一律用that。如:
     It was under the bed that my brother hid the ball this morning.
     It is Mr Bell who/that often comes and looks after the old man.
    9.It is/has been+一段时间+since从句。如:
    It is /has been three years since we saw each other last.
    10.It is (high) time that sb. did sth.
    该句型表示“某人现在该做某事了”,从句常用过去时(虚拟语气)说明现在应该做的事情。如:
     It’s six o’clock.It is high time that we went home now.

    It 常用的固定搭配:
    1. make it
    (1)在口语当中相当于succeed,表示:成功、做到、说定、赶上、及时到达
    例  It's hard to make it to the top in show business.
    (2)在口语中相当于fix the date for,表示“约定好时间”
    例  —Shall we meet next week?
    —OK. We just make it next Saturday.
    2. as it is
    (1)相当于in fact,in reality表示“事实上,实际情况是……”
    例  We had planed to finish the task today,but as it is we probably won't finish it until next week.
    (2)相当于方式状语从句,表示“照原样”
    例  Leave the table as it is.
    3. as it were
    相当于as one might say,that is to say,表示“也就是说,可以说,换句话说”
    例  He is,as it were,a modern Sherlock Holmes.
    4. if it weren't for…/if it hadn't been for…
    用来引导虚拟语气,相当于without,or but for,表示“如果不是……,要不是……”
    例  If it weren't for Tom,I wouldn't be alive today.
    5. that's it
    (1)相当于That's all. That's so much. 表示“至此为止,没有别的了”
    例  You can have one more sweet,and that's it.
    (2)相当于 That's right.表示“对啦”
    例  — I guess the key to the problem is thechoice “A”
    —That's it.
    6. catch it
    在口语中,相当于be punished/scolded for doing sth. wrong. 表示“因做错事而挨骂,受责备,受批评,受惩罚”
    例  We'll really catch it form our teacher if we're late for class again.
    7. have it
    (1)相当于say,insist表示“说,主张,表明,硬说”
    例  Rumour has it that they are getting divorced.
    (2)相当于get to know something,表示“了解,知道,获悉”
    例  I had it from John that she was going abroad.
    8. have what it takes
    在口语中,相当于be well qualified for,表示“具有成功的条件”
    例  You can take it from me that your daughter has what it takes to be a star.
    9. so it seems / appears.
    10. Keep at it!(Don't give up!)
    相当于go on,表示“继续做,不放弃”
    例  My teacher asked me to keep at it.
    11. Go it!(Go on!)拼命干,莽撞
    12. Now you have done it!(You have done sth. wrong.)
    13. Now you'll catch it!(You'll be punished.)
    14. As it happened,…
    在口语中,相当于it's a pity that…,表示“真不凑巧,真遗憾”
    例  As it happened,they were out.
    15. As it turned out,…
    在口语中,相当于it was found to be in the end,表示“最后被证明是”
    例  As it turned out,his statement was false.
    16. Such as it is(they are)
    在口语中,相当于although it may not be worth much,表示“虽然没有多大价值”
    例  You can borrow my exam notebook,such as it is.
    17. Take it/things easy.
    相当于Don't worry or don't hurry. 用来劝告别人,表示“不要慌,别担心,存住气”
    例  Take it easy! He will do it well.
    18. Take it from me.
    在口语中,相当于believe me what I say.表示“请相信我的话,我敢担保”
    例  You can take it from me that he will make it this time.
    19. For what it is worth…
    在口语中,相当于although I'm not sure it's of value,表示“不管其价值如何”
    例  Here is the article I promise you,for what it's worth.
    20. Worth it
    在口语中,相当于useful,表示“有好处,值得做”
    例  Don't hesitate about it! It's worth it.
    21. Believe it or not.表示“信不信由你”
    例  Believe it or not,Tom is getting married to Mary next Sunday.
    22. Take it or leave it. v. 要么接受要么放弃
    例  That is my last offer. You can take it or leave it.
    23. It all depends/that all depends
    在口语中,相当于it hasn't been decided yet,表示“那得看情况,还没有定下来”
    例  —Are you going to the countryside for holiday?
    —It/That all depends.
    24. It's up to sb.
    在口语中,相当于it's decided by sb. 表示“由……决定,由……负责,取决于……”
    例  —Shall we go out for dinner?
    —It's up to you.
  • it用法小结:
    It用作实词
    表达以下概念:
    指代前文提到的事物,前文中的this, that;
    替代前文中的内容;
    指代一位性别不明的小孩或未知的人;
    指代未指明但谈话双方都知道的那件事;
    指代时间、天气、气候、距离等自然现象。

    一、it 作人称代词的用法
    1. 指事物
    作为人称代词,it 可以除人以外的一切事物或动物。如:
    I dropped my watch and it broke. 我把手表掉在地上摔坏了。
    It’s hard work, but I enjoy it. 工作很辛苦,可是我乐意干。
    “Where is the dog?” “It’s in the bedroom. ” “狗在哪?”“在卧室里”。
    2. 指人
    it 指人主要用于指不性别不明的婴儿或用于确认某人的身份。如:
    Is it a boy or a girl? 是男孩还是女孩?
    There is a knock on the door. It must be the postman. 有人在敲门,一定是邮递员。
    【说明】在答语中,常用来指本人,如说 It’s me。
    3. 代替某些代词
    代词 it 还可用于代替指示代词this, that 以及复合不定代词 something, anything, nothing等。如:
    “What’s this?” “It’s a new machine. ” “这是什么?”“是一种新机器”。
    Nothing is wrong, is it? 没出什么问题,是吗?

    二、it 作非人称代词的用法
    1. 基本用法
    it 作非人称代词的用法,主要用于指时间、距离、价值、天气、气候及温度等自然现象。如:
    It’s too late to go there now. 现在去那儿已经太迟了。
    It rained all day yesterday. 昨天下了一天的雨。
    It can get very hot here. 这里有时会很热。
    2. 用于某些句型
    It’s time for sth. 该做某事了。
    It’s time to do sth. 该做某事的时候了。
    It’s time for sb to do sth. 某人该干某事了。
    It’s (about / high) time + that-从句. 某人该做某事了。(从句谓语用过去式,有时也用“should+动词原形”)
    It’s first (second) time + that-从句. 某人第几次干某事。(从句谓语用现在完成时)
    It’s + 时间段 + since-从句. 自从……有一段时间了。
    It’s + 时间段 + before-从句. 过多长的时间才……

    三、it用作形式主语
    1. 基本用法
    当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作句子主语时,为保持句子平衡,通常把真正的主语放在句末,而在句首使用形式主语it。如:
    It’s very important to remember this. 记住这一点很重要。
    It’s hard work climbing mountains. 爬山是费劲的事。
    It’s unknown when he will come. 他什么时候来还不知道。
    2. 用作形式主语的的重要句型
    (1) It + be + adj. for (of) sb to do sth 某人做某事……
    It is hard for him to make up his mind. 他很难下定决心。
    It was foolish of her to say such a thing. 她说那样的话,真是太蠢了。
    【说明】介词 of 与 for 的区别是:
    of 用于指某人的性格、属性、特征等,介词for表示对象,意为“对……来说” 。
    (2) It takes sb + 时间段 + to do sth. 某人做某事花了……时间
    It takes years to master a new language. 要花多年的时间才能掌握一门新的语言。
    【说明】此句型可以有以下多变种变体:It took me an hour to write the letter.
    =The letter took me an hour (to write). =I took an hour to write the letter. 我写这封信花了一个小时
    (3) It is up to sb to do sth. 该由某人做某事
    It’s up to you to to make the choice. 得由你来作选择。
    (4) it look (seem, appear, happen, occur) that [as if]… 似乎……
    It seemed as though he didn’t recognize me. 他似乎没认出我来。
    It happened that I was out when he called. 他打电话时我碰巧不在家。
    (5) If it were not for… / If it hadn’t been for… 若不是因为……
    If it were not for their help, we couldn’t have got over the difficulties. 要不是他们帮助,这些困难我们不克服不了的。

    四、it用作形式宾语
    1. 基本用法
    当不定式、动名词、从句等复杂成分用作宾语且其后跟有宾语补足语时,通常会在宾语补足语前使用形式宾语,而将真正的宾语移至句末。
    其基本结构为“动词+it+宾语补足语+不定式(动名词或从句)”。如:
    I find it difficult to do the job well. 我发现做好这件事不容易。
    I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好住这儿。
    We think it no use complaining. 我们认为抱怨是没有用的。
    2. 用作形式宾语的几个特殊结构
    (1) 动词+ it + that-从句。如:
    I like it that you came. 你来了,我很高兴。
    I take it (that) he will come on time. 我认为他会准时来的。
    You can put it that it was arranged before. 你可以说这是以前安排的。
    Rumor has it that the defence minister will soon resign. 据传闻,国防部长不久就要辞职。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 have, take, put, like 等。
    (2) 动词 + it + when (if)-从句。如:
    I dislike it when you whistle. 我不爱听你吹口哨。
    We really appreciate it when she offered to help. 她来帮忙了,我们十分感激。
    I’d prefer it if I didn’t have to do so much work. 要是我不必做那么多工作,好就太好了。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有 enjoy, hate, love, like, dislike, appreciate, prefer 等。
    (3) 动词 + prep + it + that-从句。如:
    See to it that you’re not late again. 注意千万不要再迟到。
    Look to it that this doesn’t happen again. 注意不要再发生这种事。
    You may rely on it that he’ll come to meet you. 你放心,他会来接你的。
    I can’t answer for it that he will come. 我不能保证他会来。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有see to, look to, insist on, stick to, depend on, answer for 等。
    (4) 动词 + it + 介词短语+ that-从句。如:
    I owe it to you that I am still alive. 多亏有你我才仍然活着。
    I took it for granted that he would help us. 我认为他会帮助我们的。
    【说明】能用于此结构的动词不多,常见的有take it for granted, bring it to sb’s attention, owe it to sb 等。

    it在强调句中的使用
    It is+被强调部分+that(who)+其他
    在使用强调句型时需注意以下几点:
    1. 请注意强调句型的特殊疑问句 
    2. 在强调原因状语从句时,只能强调由because所引导的从句。
    3. 在强调not … until结构时必须把not与until一起放到被强调的位置上。
    4. 注意强调句型与定语从句的区别。
    5. 不管被强调部分是单数还是复数,其前一律用It is / It was,而不能用They are / There were之类的。
    6. 被强调部分是指人时,被强调部分后可用that / who,被强调部分指物时,被强调部分后只能用that。
    7. 被强调部分是指时间或地点时,被强调部分后通常用that,一般不用when,where之类的。例:
    It is I who am right. 是我对。
    It was you that were wrong. 是你错了。
    It was in the Japan that he died. 他是死于日本。
    It was yesterday that he got married. 他是昨天结婚的。
    It was a computer that he bought last week. 他上个星期买的是一台电脑。
    Where was it that she lived? 她是住在什么地方?
    When was it that he left for Japan? 他是什么时候离开去日本的?
    Who is it that teaches you English? 是谁教你们英语?

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