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  2. 英语
  3. 八年级英语
  4. 形容词动词短语

You must be when you the street.[ ]A. careful;go acrossB. carefully;crossC. carelul;acrossD. careful

一、题文

You must be           when you         the street.
[     ]
A. careful;go across
B. carefully;cross
C. carelul;across
D. carefully;across

考点提示:形容词,动词短语

二、答案

A

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《You must be when you the street.[ ]A. careful;go acrossB. carefully;crossC. carelul;acrossD. careful》这道题主要考你对 形容词动词短语 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:形容词,动词短语

考点名称:形容词
  • 形容词
    简称adj.或a,形容词用来修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、状态,和特征的程度好坏与否,形容词在句中作定语,表语,宾语补足语。
    她是一个好学生,她学习努力。She is a good student, and she works hard.
    这辆自行车很贵。This bike is expensive.
    对不起,我现在很忙。I am sorry, I'm busy now.
    你为这次会议做好准备了吗? Have you got everything ready for the meeting?
  • 形容词的语法功能:
    一、作定语
    He is the greatest writer alive.他是依然健在的伟大的作家。
    Somewone else has done it.别人已经做了这事。
    二、作补语
    形容词做主语补足语和宾语补足语时,可以表示其现状、状态,也可以表示某一动作的结果,并常用在表示“认为,看待”的动词如believe,prove,consider等候。例如:
    The news made her sad.这消息使他感到非常悲伤。
    Don't marry young.不要早婚。
    三、作状语
    形容词或形容词短语可作状语,形容词作状语时,可以看作是“being+形容词”结构的省略,可表示时间、原因、条件、方式、强调或伴随状况等意义。例如:
    Enthusiastic,they are co-operative.热心的时候他们是很合作的。
    Rich or poor, young or old, we all have problems.不管是穷人还是富人,不管是年轻人还是老人,我们都有问题。
    四、做表语
    The ship was adrift on unknown seas.那艘船在陌生的海域漂流。
    五、做主语
    Old and young joined the discussion.
    Rich or poor meant the same to him.作感叹语
    Very good!Say it again.
    Stupid!He must be crasy.
  • 形容词的几个特殊用法:
    most 同形容词连用而不用 the, 表示 " 极,很,非常, 十分"。
    It's most dangerous to be here. 在这儿太危险。
    I cannot do it, it's most difficult. 我干不了这件事,太难了。

    "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级..." 表示 " 越... 就越..."。
    The more you study, the more you know. 你学的越多, 就知道的越多。
    The more I have, the more I want. 我越有就越想要有。
    The more, the better. 越多越好。

    " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。
    It's getting hotter and hotter. 天气越来越热了.
    It's pity he is getting poorer and poorer. 真可怜他越来越穷了。
    The computer is cheaper and cheaper. 计算机越来越便宜。
    The more and more people focus on the meeting next year. 越来越多的人关注明年的会议。

    主语+谓语(系动词)+as+形容词原形+as+从句。表示两者对比相同。
    This box is as big as mine. 这个盒子和我的一样大。
    This coat is as cheap as that one. 这件衣服同那件衣服一样便宜。
     I study English as hard as my brother. 我同我兄弟一样学习努力。

    the + 形容词 表示某种人。
    He always helps the poor. 他经常帮助穷人。
    I like to have a talk with the young. 我喜欢同年轻人谈话。
    The rich sometimes complain their empty life. 富人有时抱怨他们空虚的生活。
    The police led the old man across the street. 警察领老人横过马路。

    以-ly结尾的形容词
    1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively,brotherly,仍为形容词。
    改错:(错) She sang lovely.             (错) He spoke to me very friendly.
       (对) Her singing was lovely.  (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.
    2)有些以-ly 结尾的词既为形容词,也为副词。
    daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early
    The Times is a daily paper.
    The Times is published daily.

    too+adj.+to句型   “太…而不能”
      He is too young to go to school.
     =He isn’t old enough to go to school.
     =He is so young that he can’t go to school.

  • 形容词的位置:
    1.形容词一般放在名词前作定语  
    单个形容词修饰名词时,一般要放在名词的前面。它们的前面常常带有冠词、形容词性物主代词、指示代词、数词等。例如:  
    a red flower一朵红花
    an interesting story一个有趣的故事  
    six blind men 六个盲人
    my own house我自己的房子
    如果有两个或两个以上的形容词修饰一个名词时,则由它们和被修饰的名词之间的密切程度而定,越密切的形容词越靠近名词。
    如果几个形容词的密切程度差不多则按音节少的形容词放在前面,音节多的形容词放在后面。  
    2.当形容词所修饰的词是由some,any,every,no等构成的不定代词时,形容词必须置于名词之后。例如:  
        She has something new to tell me.她有一些新的情况告诉我。  
        I have nothing important to do today.今天我没有重要的工作要做。  
        Do you know anybody else here?这儿你还有认识的人吗?  
    3.形容词后面有介词短语或不定式短语时,形容词必须置于名词之后。例如:  
        It is a problem difficult to work out.这是一道难以解决的问题。  
        Edison is a student difficult to teach.爱迪生是个很难教的学生。  
        This is a kind of flowers easy to grow.这是一种易栽的花。  
    4.用 and 或 or 连接起来的两个形容词作定语时一般把它们放在被修饰的名词后面。起进一步解释的作用。例如:  
        All people,young or old,should be strict with themselves.  
        所有的人,无论老少,都应该严格要求自己。  
        We are building a new school, modern and super.  
        我们正在建一所现代化的高档次的新型学校。  
        All countries, rich and poor, should help one another. 所有的国家,无论穷富都应该互相帮助。  
    5.有少数形容词,如enough和possible,既可置于所修饰的名词前面也可以置于它所修饰的名词之后。例如:   
    Do you have enough time(time enough)to prepare?你有足够的时间做准备吗?   
    Maybe it will be a possible chance(chance possible)for you.或许它将成为一次可能的机遇。
    6.有些形容词,置于名词之前与之后,含义不尽相同。例如:  
    the writer present 出席的作者  
    the present writer 现在的作者
    7.表示长,宽,高,深,及年龄的形容词,应放在相应的名词之后。
    This river is about 100 metres wide.
    The building is more than 50 metres tall.
     He is less than 40 years old.
    8. enough修饰名词时,在名词前后都可以。
    They said that they had enough food.= They said that they had food enough.
     enough 修饰形容词和副词,位于其后。
     He is old enough to join the army.
     He isn’t old enough to go to school.
    9.形容词else通常放在疑问代词,疑问副词或不定代词后
     what/who/where/when/when else
     something/anything/nothing…else
     What else did you do?
     Do you have anything else to say?
    10.由两个或两个以上的词组成的形容词词组修饰名词时须放在名词之后。
    This is the book easy to read.
    这是一本容易读的书。

  • 形容词知识拓展:
    名词化的形容词:
    有些形容词可以和定冠词连用,表示一类人或事物,这时,它相当于一个名词,可作主语或宾语;
    表示一类人时,看作复数,表示一类事物时,通常看作单数。
    Robin Hooh(罗宾汉) hated the rich and loved the poor.
    The old are taken good  care of in American.
    the+形容词,常见的短语有:
    the old/the young/the sick/the white/
    the black/the rich/the poor/the dead(死者)

    形似副词的形容词:
    以-ly结尾的词通常是副词,但是下列词为形容词。
    friendly  lonely (孤独的) ;lively (活着的);lovely(可爱的)

    复合形容词的类型:
    (1)名词+过去分词  man-made satellite 人造卫星
    (2)形容词+现在分词  a good-looking man
    (3)形容词+名词  second-hand cars
    (4)数词+名词-ed   three-legged chairs三条腿的椅子
    (5)数词+名词  400- metre race
    (6)副词+现在分词  hard-working students
    (7)副词+过去分词  well-known writers
    (8)形容词+形容词  a dark-red jacket
    (9)形容词+过去分词  ready-made clothes 成品服装

    含有形容词的常用句型:
    (1) It’s+adj. of sb. to do sth.
    (good/ kind/nice/polite/clever/foolish… )
    It’s very kind of you to help me.
    (2) It’s +adj. for sb. to do sth.
    (difficult/easy/hard/dangerous/usefulinteresting/important…)
    It’s important for us to learn English well.
    (3)下列形容词后常跟动词不定式
     表示情感或情绪的形容词:glad,pleased,sorry,sad,afraid,thankful…
     I'm glad to see you.
    表示能力,意志或推测的形容词:ready,able,sure,certain…
     I’m sorry to hear that.

    某些现在分词和过去分词可作形容词
    the moving story 令人感动的故事
    a moved boy   一个被感动的男孩
    a frightened child 一个被吓到的孩子
    a frightening film 一个恐怖电影
考点名称:动词短语
  • 动词短语:
    由动词和动短语成,或以动词为中心,功能同动词的短语叫动词短语,动词短语是动词的一种固定搭配形式,动词短语的搭配可分为下列四种基本类型。
  • 动词短语搭配形式:
    1.动词+副词
    ①作及物动词,例: 
    He brought up his children strictly.   
    从以上的例句中可以看出,在“动词+副词”的词组中宾语位置有两种情况:
    宾语如是名词,则可置于副词后面,亦可置于动词和副词之间。
    而如果宾语是代词,只能置于动词后面,即动词和副词之间。   
    ②作不及物动词,例:    
    Something unexpected has turned up. 出现了令人意外的情况。(turn up=appear)   
    ③既可作及物动词又可作不及物动词,例:   
    The barrel of gunpowder blew up.(不及物)火药桶爆炸了。   
    The soldiers blew up the bridge.(及物)士兵们把桥炸毁了。

    2.动词+介词 
    动词与介词构成的词组在词义上相当于一个及物动词,宾语总是在介词后面,例:
    I don’t much care for television.我不很喜欢电视。(care for=like)

    3.动词+副词+介词
    在这类动词短语中,动词、副词、介词紧密结合,是动副词组和动介词组的合成体,词义上相当于一个及物动词。
    它兼有以上两类短语动词的特点,但宾语总是位于介词之后,例: 
    We must work hard to make up for lost time.我们必须努力工作来弥补失去的时间。(make up for=compensate)

    4.动词+名词
    这类动词短语中的常见动词是have,take,give,make等,
    后面的名词通常是从动词转化而来的动作名词,并表达了短语动词的真正意义,例:    
    Let’s have another try.让我们再试一下。(have a try=v.try)  

    5.动词+名词+介词    
    这类动词短语只用作及物动词。名词前可加形容词说明程度,宾语总是位于介词之后,
     例:Keep an eye on the baby while I am out.我不在家时请照看一下小孩子。   

    6.be+形容词(包括过去分词作形容词)+介词    
    这类动词短语也相当于及物动词,宾语位于介词后面,形容词是短语动词的真正词义,
    例:I know he is slow at understanding,but you have to be patient with him. 我知道他理解力差,但你得对他耐心些。
  • 动词短语与短语动词:
    <?xml:namespace prefix = "o" ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />一、短语动词
    (1)短语动词常常是两个词(一个动词+一个副词性小品)构成,如:wake up , get up ,turn out 等。

    (2)同一个动词后面可以有不同的副词性小品词,构成不同意义的短语动词。如:He turn on the radio .Bob turned out smiling.

    (3)短语动词用法普遍,尤其在非正式语言中:

    我们可以说 He awoke late the following morning .但这太正式了。

    我们通常说 He woke up late the following morning .


    短语动词的类型

    Here is a page from Mr Jones` diary :

    Monday ,February 5th.

    *有些短语动词不带宾语:

    The car broke down .Cigarette prices are going up.

    *多数主短语动词可以带宾语,宾语通常在副词性小品词的前或后:

    动词+副词性小品词+宾语 动词+宾语+副词性小品词

    I rang up a garage. I rang a garage up.

    如果宾语较长,则通常放在副词之后:

    I filled in an application form.(不说 I filled an application form in .)

    如果宾语是代词,其结构通常如下:

    动词+代词+副词性小品词

    I put it down.(不说 I put down it .)

    *有些短语动词是由三个词构成的(动词+副词性小品词+介词),这样,宾语就只能放在介词后面:

    I don`t get on with the people at work.

    短语动词由动词加上介词或副词小品词构成。比如:
    1. 由动词break构成的常见短语动词有:
    break away (from) 突然逃离;断绝往来,脱离;改掉,破除
    break down (机器等)坏了;(计划等)失败;(谈话等)中断;(健康等)变坏;感情失去控制
    break in 突然进来,强行进入;插嘴,打岔;训练,使适应
    break into 强行进入;突然…起来;打断,插嘴;占用时间
    break off 停止讲话;暂停,休息;(使)折断
    break out (火灾、战争等)突然发生,爆发
    break through 突破;克服,征服;强行穿过;(太阳等)从云层里出来
    break up 解散,驱散;(学校等)放假;结束,破裂;击碎;绝交
    break with 与…绝交,与…决裂
    2. 又如由bring构成的常用短语动词有:
    bring about 引起,实现,导致
    bring (a)round 使改变观点或看法;使苏醒;顺便把某人带来串门
    bring back 送还;使想起,使恢复
    bring down 击落;打死,打伤;使倒下;降低
    bring forth 产生,引起,结果
    bring in 收获;获利;介绍,引进;聘请;逮捕
    bring off 从船上救出;设法做成
    bring on 带来,引起;促使生长;帮助提高
    bring out 取出,拿出;显示出,使出来;出版
    bring over 说服,使改变(思想等)
    bring through 使度过(困难,危机等)
    bring together 使和解
    bring up 提出,提起;抚养,培养;呕吐

    二、动词短语
    动词短语由动词加上宾语或状语构成。如:
    break a glass 打破一个玻璃杯
    break one’s leg 摔断腿
    break a window 打破窗户
    break the rules 违反规定
    break a bad habit 改掉坏习惯
    break the world record 打破世界记录
    bread easily 容易断
    break to pieces 破成碎片
    bring a book 带来一本书
    bring sb sth 给某人带来某物
    bring sb great satisfaction 给某人带来极大的快慰
    bring death and famine 导致死亡和饥荒

  • 初中英语动词短语整理:
    1. break
    break down破坏,出毛病,拆开
    break off暂停,中断
    break in破门而入, 打断
    break into破门而入,突然…起来
    break out爆发
    break away from打破陈规;奋力挣脱;放弃习惯
    break through 出现,突破
    break up打碎,拆散, 分裂、分解

    2. call
    call at a place (车船等)停靠;到某地拜访。
    call away 叫走,叫开…;转移(注意力等)。
    call back唤回; 回电话;
    call for需要,要求
    call for sth (sb) 喊着叫某人来,喊着叫人取来某物
    call in 叫进,请进; 找来,请来;来访;收回
    call off取消; 叫走,转移开
    call (up)on sb 拜访或看望某人
    call sb sth 为某人叫某物
    call (up)on sb to do sth
    叫(请)某人做某事
    call up给…打电话;  想起,回忆起; 召集,应召入伍   
    call out大喊,高叫; 叫出去

    3. come
    come down下跌,落,降,传下来   
    come in进来  
    come out出版,结果是
    come on来临/ 快点   
    come along一道来,赶快
    come over走过来   
    come up发芽,走近     
    come back回来   
    come from来自,源自

    4. cut
    cut down砍倒,削减  
    cut up连根拔除,切碎

    5. die
    die of死于(疾病,饥饿,寒冷,情感原因)
    die from死于(外界原因)    
    die out绝种

    6. fall
    fall behind落后 
    fall down掉下,跌倒
    fall into 落入;陷入
    fall off 从。。。掉下
    fall out与。。。争吵

    7. go
    go along沿着。。。。走
    go through通过,经受
    go over复习,检查                  
    go up(价格)上涨,建造起来               
    go against违反  
    go away离开
    go by时间过去                      
    go down降低,(日、月)西沉
    go on(with)继续进行                  
    go out外出,熄灭                  
    go off发出响声

    8. get
    get down下来,记下,使沮丧         
    get on进展,进步,穿上,上车           
    get off脱下,下车
    get away逃跑,逃脱,去休假
    get over克服,从疾病中恢复  
    get along with进展,相处
    get up起床                              
    get into (trouble) 陷入困境中              
    get back取回,收回                      
    get out 出去
    get to 到达。。。

    9. give
    give away赠送,泄露,出卖        
    give out发出,疲劳,分发,      
    give in (to sb.) 屈服
    give up放弃,让(座位)

    10. hand
    hand in交上,提交
    hand out分发    

    11.hold
    hold on to…继续,坚持
    hold up举起,使停顿
    hold on别挂电话,等,坚持     

    12. keep       
    keep up with跟上
    keep out 不使。。。进入              
    keep from克制,阻止
    keep away from避开,不接近,
    keep on继续,坚持下来
    keep down 使。。。处于低水平                 

    13.knock
    knock at/on敲
    knock into撞到某人身上                   

    14. look
    look up查找,向上看 
    look through翻阅,浏览     
    look after/ at / for 照顾/看/寻找
    look out(for)当心                                  
    look about / around/round四下查看
    look forward to盼望                           

    15. make
    make up编造,打扮,组成           
    make into / of / from 制成           

    16.pass     
    pass by经过              
    pass down(on)…to传给

    17. pay
    pay back还钱,报复 
    pay for付钱,因…得到报应  

    18. pick
    pick up拾起,接人,站起,收听,
    pick out挑选,辨认,看出  

    19. put
    put up张贴,举起,   
    put out伸出,扑灭            
    put off推迟               
    put into放进,翻译
    put away放好,存钱           
    put down记下,平息
    put on穿戴,上映,              
    put aside放到一边         
    put back放回

    20. stand
    stand out 突显,引人注目
    stand up 起立,站起来
    38.其它常用词组
    wake up 醒,唤醒,弄醒
    stay up 不睡觉;熬夜
    depend on依靠;取决于
    worry about为。。。担忧
    laugh at嘲笑。。。
    begin with以。。。开始
    mix up混合、搀和
    major in 主修
    grow up成长
    open up 打开,张开;开发
    end up到达或来到某处; 达到某状态
    throw away 丢弃。。。
    ask for要求。。。
    wait for等待。。。
    agree with同意。。。
    find out(经研究或询问)获知某事
    send out 发出,放出,射出
    search for 搜索,搜查
    chop down 砍到
    have.. on 穿着。。。
    step out of 跨步走出
    drop out of 从。。。掉出
    happen to 发生在。。。
    belong to属于
    arrive in /at到达。。。
    try on试穿。。。
    vote on对。。。进行投票
    strech out伸展。。。
    hang out闲逛
    leave for离开前往
    sell out 卖完、售完
    show up 出席;露面

    21. run
    run after追逐,追捕   
    run away逃跑  
    run off跑掉,迅速离开       
    run out of用完

    22. set
    set up建立       
    set off 激起,引起      

    23. take
    take after 与…相像
    take off脱掉,起飞  
    take away拿走  
    take up从事,占用(时间空间)   
    take down记录,取下       
    take back收回
    take pride in以… ……为自豪,
    take the place of 代替

    24. think
    think of想起,考虑,对…看法   
    think out(自然)想出办法  
    think up想出(设计出、发明、编造)
    think about考虑      
    think over仔细考虑      

    25. turn
    turn off / on打开                  
    turn to翻到,转向,求助
    turn down调低,拒绝               
    turn back返回,转回去
    turn round转过身来                 
    turn up向上翻,出现,音量调大                     

    26. care
    care about 担心,关心;在乎,介意
    care for 关心,关怀,照顾

    27. clean
    clean up 把…打扫干净,把…收拾整齐
    clean out 清除;把…打扫干净

    28.learn
    learn about 获悉,得知,认识到
    learn from  从/向。。。学习

    29. fight
    fight for..争取获得…
    fight against 争取克服、战胜…
    fight with…与。。。搏斗/战斗

    30. dream
    dream of梦想,想橡
    dream about 梦到。。。

    31. work
    work for 为。。工作
    work out 产生结果;发展;成功

    32. argue
    argue with …与。。。争论
    argue about..争论。。。

    33. complain
    complain to 向。。抱怨
    complain about抱怨。。。

    34. hear
    hear of 听说,得知
    hear about听到。。。的事,听到。。的话
    hear from接到。。。的信

    35. talk
    talk about 讨论。。。
    talk with/to..和。。。讨论

    36. live
    live in 住在。。。
    live on 以。。。为主食

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