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  4. 连接副词副词实义动词

—Will you please give some advice on _______ English at home? —Well, do a lot of reading and listen

一、题文

—Will you please give some advice on _______ English at home?
—Well, do a lot of reading and listen to English program.

A. how to read
B. how to learn
C. when to use

考点提示:连接副词,副词,实义动词

二、答案

B

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《—Will you please give some advice on _______ English at home? —Well, do a lot of reading and listen》这道题主要考你对 连接副词副词实义动词 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:连接副词,副词,实义动词

考点名称:连接副词
  • 连接副词:
    可分为两类,一类是用于连接句子或从句,常见的有therefore, otherwise, however, moreover, still, thus, meanwhile等;
    另一类是用于引导从句或不定式,主要有when, why, where, how等。
    例如:We all tried our best; however, we lost the game. 
                Tell me when we shall leave. 
                I do not know how to find him.
  •  连接副词的特点:
    一、连接句子或从句的连接副词
    连接副词的性质类似于并列连词,使用时其前通常用分号或句号;
    若其前用逗号,则通常带有并列连词(如and)。如:
    I don't like it; besides, it's too expensive. 我不喜欢它,而且也太贵了。
    We all tried our best; however, we lost the game. / We all tried our best. However, we lost the game. 我们都已尽了最大的努力,不过我们还是输了。
    注意,有的连接副词(如however等)后通常有逗号与句子的其他成分隔开。另外,有的这类副词还可位于句中或句末:
    Peter is our youngest child, and we have three others besides. 彼昨是我们最小的孩子,我们另外还有三个孩子。
    He may, however, come later. 不过,他也许一会儿就到。
    We all tried out best. We lost the game, however. 我们都已尽了最大的努力,不过我们还是输了。

    二、引导从句和不定式的连接副词
    用于引导从句(名词性从句)或不定式的连接副词主要有when, why, where, how等。如:
    Tell me when we shall leave. / Tell me when to leave. 告诉我什么时候离开。
    I don't know how I can find him. / I don't know how to find him. 我不知道如何找到他。
    Where we can get the money is just our problem. / Where to get the money is just our problem. 到哪里去弄到这笔钱正是我们头痛的事。
    That's why he speaks English so well. 那就是他为什么英语讲得这么好的原因。
    注:连接副词why 后不能不定式,如可说 I don't know why I must leave.(我不知道我为什么必须离开),但不能说 I don't know why to leave。

  • 连接副词的句法特征:
    所谓连接代词和副词,实际上就是我们以前学过的疑问代词和副词,如who, whose, whom, what, which, when,where, why,how以及由how构成的词组。
    1.连接副词起对等连接词的作用,连接两个句子或子句,如:
    however, so, then,moreover,concequencely,hence,also,besides,,otherwise,therefore,thus等。
    I feel a bit tired. However, I can hold on.我有点累了,但我能坚持下去。
    They talked about it for hours. Finally, they decided to go。他们对此商量了好几个小时,最后他们决定去。

    2.连接副词通常位于子句的句首,有的也可位于句中。
    They talked about it for hours. Finally, they decided to go。他们对此商量了好几个小时,最后他们决定去。
    finally作为连接副词,放在句子的句首。
    I have never been to Wales. I, therefore, don't know much about it.我从未去过威尔斯,因此我对它知道的不多。
    therefore作为连接副词,位于句子的句中。

    3.有些连接副词的含义彼此相同或相近,在使用时可以互相替换,而不会改变原句的含义。
    The weather was cold. Therefore(Thus), we stayed home.天气寒冷,因此我们待在家里。
    therefore和thus的含义相近,因而也可以互相替换。

    在应用时要注意以下两点:
    一是它们在构成疑问句时叫疑问词,引导宾语从句时称作引导词。
    一是它们和that不一样,在从句中有含义,担任相关的句子成分,所以不能省略,另外,它们须放在宾语从句之首,宾语从句必须是陈述句结构。

  • 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:
    连接词:that, whether, if, as if, as though(不充当从句的任何成分,但绝不能省略)
    连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, whichever.
    连接副词:when, whenever, where, wherever, how, however, why

    不可省略的连词:
    1. 介词后的连词
    2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。
    That she was chosen made us very happy.
    We heard the news that our team had won.
    大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。
    It is not important who will go.
    It is still unknown which team will win the match.
考点名称:副词
  • 副词:
    是一种用来修饰动词、形容词、全句的词,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念的词。副词是一种半虚半实的词。
    副词可分为:地点副词、方式副词、程度副词、疑问副词和连接副词。
    副词连用顺序:程度副词+方式副词+地点副词+时间副词。
  • 副词分类:
    1、时间副词有三类:always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词
    1)表示发生时间的副词:
    It’s beginning to rain now!  现在开始下雨了!
    2)表示频繁程度的副词,也称频度副词always, often, usually, sometimes, never, ever, hardly等一般位于系动词、情态动词和助动词之后,实之前义动词:
    She often changes her mind.  她常改变主意。
    3)还有一些其他表示时间的副词:
     He has just had an operation. 他刚动过手术。
    2、地点副词:
    1)有不少表示地点的副词:
    She is studying abroad.  她在国外留学。
    2)还有一些部分与介词同形的副词。它们与介词同形,跟宾语的是介词,否则是副词:
    ①用作介词:Stand up!  起立!
    ②用作副词:A cat climbed up the tree.  猫爬上了树。
    3)以where 构成的副词也是地点副词: 
    It’s the same everywhere.  到处都一样。
    3、方式副词:
    carefully, properly(适当地), anxiously(焦虑地), suddenly, normally(正常地), fast, well, calmly(冷静地), politely(有礼貌地), proudly(自豪地), softly, warmly ,slowly
    4、程度副词:
    much,little, very,rather(相当),so,too,still, quite, perfectly(完美地), enough, extremely(非常), entirely(整个),almost, slightly(细小地), hardly.
    5、疑问副词:
    how, when, where, why.
    6、关系副词:
    when, where, why.等。
    7、 连接副词:
    therefore(因此),moreover(此外),however,otherwise(另外的),then,when ,where,how,why等。

    副词的语法作用:
    副词在句中可作状语,表语,补语,定语。
    He works hard. (作状语)
    他工作努力。
    You speak English very well. (作状语)
    你英语讲的相当好。
    Is she in ? (作表语)
    她在家吗?
    Let's be out. (作表语)
    让我们出去吧。
    Food here is hardly to get. (here作定语,hardly作状语)
    这儿很难弄到食物。
    Let him out!(作补语)
    让他出去!
    修饰名词的副词放在被修饰词之后
    a. The villagers there are busy getting in wheat.

  • 不同类型副词的用法比较:
    方式副词:
    1)英语中有大量方式副词,说明行为方式(回答how的问题):
    How beautifully your wife dances.  你夫人舞跳的真美。
    2)还有相当多的副词,表示某些情绪:
    She smiled gratefully.  她感激的笑了笑。
    3)还有一些以-ly结尾的副词,表示动作发生的状况:
    He left the town secretly. 他悄然离开了这座城市。

    程度副词和强调副词 :
    1)程度副词可修饰动词,表示“到某种程度”:   Is she badly hurt?  她伤得重吗?
      [说明] 这类副词除修饰动词外,还可修饰形容词(a)或另一副词(b):
    a. fairly simple 相当简单      quite correct 完全正确
    b. wonderfully well 好极了    do it very quickly 干得很快
    2)much 是一个特殊的程度副词,它可以:
    a. 修饰形容词等:
    I’m not much good at singing. 我唱歌不太好。
     b. 修饰比较级:
    You sing much better than me. 你比我唱的好多了。
    Their house is much nicer than ours. 他们的房子比我们的好多了。

    疑问副词和连接副词:
    1)疑问副词:疑问副词用来引导特殊问句:
    how: How is your grandmother? 你奶奶身体好吗?
    where: Where does she come from? 她是哪儿人?
    when: When can you come? 你什么时候能来?
    why: Why was he so late? 他为什么来得这么晚?
    2)连接副词:连接副词意思和词形都和疑问副词一样,但都引导从句或与不定式连用:
    how: Do you know how to start this machine? 你知道这台机器怎样启动吗?
    where: I don’t know where he lives. 我不知道他住在哪儿。(引导宾语从句)
    when: Tell me when you’ll be ready. 告诉我你什么时候准备好。(引导宾语从句)
    why: That’s why I came round. 这就是我来的原因。(引导表语从句)

    一些其它类型的副词,如表示方向的副词:
    Let’s go inside. 咱们到里面去。
    Take two steps forward. 向前走两步。

  • 副词的位置:
    1、实义动词前,be动词、情态动词之后。
    I am also Bush.
    I can also do that.
    I also want to play that games.
    I get up early in the morning everyday. 我每天早早起床。
    He gave me a gift yesterday. 他昨天给了我一件礼物。
    She didn't drink water enough. 她喝的水不够。
    The train goes fast. 火车跑得快。
    We can go to this school freely. 我们可以免费到这家学校学习。
    They left a life hardly then. 当时他们的生活很艰难。
    He has a new hat on today. 他今天戴了一顶新帽子。
    I have seen this film twice with my friends. 这部电影我和朋友看过两次。

    2、副词修饰形容词,副词时,副词在前面,而被修饰的词在后面。
    It's rather easy, I can do it. 这很容易,我能做到。
    He did it quite well. 他做得相当好。
    It's rather difficult to tell who is right.很难说谁是对的。
    It's so important that I must tell my friends. 这件事太重要了,我得告诉我的朋友。
    It's much better. 好多了。

    3、频度副词可放在实义动词的前面,情态动词和助动词的后面。
    I often help him these days. 这些日子我经常帮助他。
    I always remember the day when I first came to this school.
    我常常记得我第一次来学校的那一天。
    You mustn't always help me. 你不能老是帮助我。
    He seldom comes to see us. 他很少来看我们。
    We usually go shopping once a week. 我们通常一周买一次东西。
    The new students don't always go to dance. 新学生并不时常去跳舞。

    4、疑问副词,连接副词,关系副词以及修饰整个句子的副词,通常放在句子或从句的前面。
    When do you study everyday? 你每天什么时间学习?
    Can you tell me how you did it? 你能告诉我你如何做的吗?
    First, let me ask you some questions. 先让我来问几个问题。
    How much does this bike cost? 这辆车子多少钱?
    Either you go or he comes. 不是你去就是他来。
    The students were reading when the teacher came into the classroom. 当老师进教室时,学生们正在读书。

    5、时间副词和地点副词在一个句中, 地点副词在前面时间副词在后面。
    We went shopping in the supermarket at 9 o'clock yesterday.
    昨天九点钟我们到超市买东西了.
    What were you doing in the classroom yesterday afternoon?
    昨天下午你在教室里干什么?
    The accident took place in the Eleven Avenue one hour ago.
    一小时前十一号大街发生了一场事故。

    6、否定副词在句首,句子要倒装,如:
    Never have I felt so excited!
  • 兼有两种形式的副词:
    1) close与closely
    close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"
    He is sitting close to me.
    Watch him closely.

    2) late 与lately
    late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"
    You have come too late.
    What have you been doing lately?

    3) deep与deeply
    deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"
    He pushed the stick deep into the mud.
    Even father was deeply moved by the film.

    4) high与highly
    high表示空间高度;highly表示程度,相当于much
    The plane was flying high.
    I think highly of your opinion.

    5) wide与widely
    wide表示空间宽度;widely意思是"广泛地","在许多地方"
    He opened the door wide.
    English is widely used in the world.

    6) free与freely
    free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"
    You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.
    You may speak freely; say what you like.
    副词有加a或ly的 区别在于通常加a 的副词描述一种状态,而加ly 的副词则倾向于感觉。
考点名称:实义动词
  • 实意动词:
    即行为动词,表示动作的动词。实义动词与系动词是相对的,能独立用作谓语。
    它分为及物动词和不及物动词两种:
    及物动词是指后面要求有直接宾语的动词;
    不及物动词指后面不需要跟宾语的动词。
  • 实意动词使用方法:
    及物动词
    后面必须跟宾语意义才完整的实义动词,叫做及物动词(transitive verb)。如:
    I believe that the committee will consider our suggestion.我相信委员会将会考虑我们的建议。
    “How long can I keep the book ?”Harry asked.哈里问:“这本书我可以借多久?”
    Dr. Bethune set us a good example. 白求恩大夫给我们树立了好榜样。
    Crude oil contains many useful substances.原油含有许多有用的物质。

    不及物动词
    本身意义完整后面不须跟宾语的实义动词,叫做不及物动词(intransitive verb)。如:
    Birds fly.鸟会飞。
    It happened in June 1932.这件事发生于一九三二年六月。
    My watch stopped.我的表停了。
    She spoke at the meeting yesterday evening. 她在昨天晚上的会上发了言。

    兼作及物动词和不及物动词
    英语里有不少实义动词可以兼作及物动词和不及物动词。这样的动词又有两种不同的情况
    a)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,意义不变。试比较:
    Shall I begin at once?我可以立刻开始吗?(begin作不及物动词)
    She began working as a librarian after she left school.她毕业后当图书馆管理员。(began作及物动词)
    When did they leave Chicago?他们是什么时候离开芝加哥的?(leave 作及物动词)
    They left last week. 他们是上周离开的。(left 作不及物动词)
    b)兼作及物动词和不及物动词时,有时意义不尽相同。如:
    Wash your hands before meals.饭前要洗手。
    Does this cloth wash well? 这布经得起洗吗?

  • 英汉实意动词用法比较:
    与汉语的比较,有时英语动词的及物和不及物的用法,与汉语的用法不一样,请注意下列两种情况:
    a)有的动词在英语里只能用作不及物动词,而汉语则可用作及物动词,如arrive到达,agree同意,listen听。英语里这些动词后面常接介词。如:
    We arrived at the railway station at noon.
    我们于中午到达火车站。(at不能省去)
    (比较:We reached the railway station at noon.)
    Everybody listened to the lecture with great interest.
    每个人都很有兴趣地听讲课。(to不可省去)
    (比较:We all heard the lecture.)
    Do they agree to the plan?他们同意这个计划吗?(to不可省去)

    b)有的动词在英语里能用作及物动词,而在汉语里则不能用作及物动词,如serve为…服务。
    Our children are taught to serve the people wholeheartedly.
    我们的儿童被教以全心全意为人民服务
    用于be动词之后,实义动词之前。
  •  实意动词的用法:
    肯定句:
    主语+动词过去式+其它
    否定句:
    主语+助动词didn‘t+动词原型+其他
    一般过去式:
    Did+主语+动词原型+其他

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