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  4. 情态动词被动语态

To make our city more beautiful, rubbish into the river. [ ]A. needn't be thrown B. mustn'

一、题文

To make our city more beautiful, rubbish            into the river.
[     ]
A. needn't be thrown
B. mustn't be thrown
C. can't throw
D. may not throw

考点提示:情态动词,被动语态

二、答案

B

三、考点梳理

知名教师分析,《To make our city more beautiful, rubbish into the river. [ ]A. needn't be thrown B. mustn'》这道题主要考你对 情态动词被动语态 等知识点的理解。

关于这些知识点的“解析掌握知识”如下:

知识点名称:情态动词,被动语态

考点名称:情态动词
  • 情态动词:
    是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪、态度或与语气的动词,但不能单独作谓语,只能和其他动词原形构成谓语。
    无人称和数的变化,情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 “not”。
    个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式,过去式用来表达更加客气,委婉的语气, 时态性不强,可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属非及物动词,故没有被动语态。
    情态动词有四类:    
    ①只做情态动词:must, can(could),may(might)……    
    ②可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need, dare   
    ③具有情态动词特征:have(had, has) to, used to    
    ④情态动词表猜测
    注:mustn't代表强烈禁止 must表示主观,have to表示客观。
    常用的有:can  may  could  must   have  use  .
  • 情态动词特点:
    情态动词无人称和数的变化,情态动词后面跟的动词须用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 "not"。
    个别情态动词有现在式和过去式两种形式,过去式用来表达更加客气,委婉的语气,时态性不强,可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属非及物动词,故没有被动语态。
    He could be here soon.他很快就来。
    We can't carry the heavy box.我们搬不动那箱子。
    I'm sorry I can't help you.对不起,我帮不上你。

    基本助动词与情态助动词最主要的区别之一是:
    基本助动词本身没有词义,而情态助动词则有自己的词义,能表示说话人对有关动作或状态的看法,或表示主观设想:
    What have you been doing since? (构成完成进行体,本身无词义)
    I am afraid I must be going. (一定要)
    You may have read some account of the matter. (或许已经)

    除此之外,情态助动词还有如下词法和句法特征:
    1) 除ought和used以外,其他情态动词后面只能接不带to的不定式。如果我们把ought to和used to看做是固定词组的话,那么,所有情态动词无一例外地只能接不带to的不定式:
    We used to grow beautiful roses.我们过去常常种这种漂亮的玫瑰花
    I asked if he would come and repair my television set.我问他是否来修我的电视机
    2) 情态助动词在限定动词词组总是位居第一:
    They need not have been punished so severely.
    3) 情态助动词用于第三人称单数现在时的时候,没有词形变化,即其词尾无-s形式:
    She dare not say what she thinks.
    4) 情态动词没有非限定形式,即没有不定式和分词形式,也没有相应的动名词:
    Still,she needn't have run away.
    5)情态助动词的“时”的形式并不是时间区别的主要标志。在不少场合,情态助动词的现在时和过去时形式都可以表示现在、过去或将来时间:
    Would you mind very much if I ask you to do something?
    She told him he ought not to have done it.
    6) 情态助动词之间是相互排斥的,即在一个限定动词词组中只能出现一个情态助动词,但有时却可以与have和be基本助动词连用:
    You should have washed the wound.
    Well,you shouldn't be reading a novel.
    7)情态动词must一般疑问句否定回答用needn't
    Must I read books every day、
    No,you needn't

  • 常见情态动词用法:
    1.can (could) 表示说话人能,可以,同意,准许,以及客观条件许可,could 为 can 的过去式。
    2.Must 必须,应该,一定,准是,表示说话人认为有必要做某事,命令,要求别人做某事以及对事物的推测。
    must 用来指一般现在时和一般将来时, 过去式可用 have to 的过去式代替。
    must + have + 过去分词,表示现在对过去事物的推测。
    must 和 have to 的区别:must 表示说话人的主观思想,have to 表示客观需要。
    3.need 是一个情态动词,他的用法完全和其他情态动词一样,但 need 还可当作实义动词使用,这时 need 就象其他动词一样,有第三人称,单复数, 后面加带 to 的动词等特性。
    needn't + have + 过去分词 表示过去做了没必要做的事情。
    4.dare 除用作情态动词外,更多的是当实义动词使用, 用法同实义动词一样,要考虑人称,单复数,时态等。
    5.ought 应当,应该。后面跟带有 to 的动词不定式。
    ought + to have done 句型。指过去动作,表示一件事情该做而未做。
    ought not to have done 句型。表示一件不该做的事情却做了。
    6.will (would)决心,愿望。 would 为 will 的过去式,
    will, would用于疑问句表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问,用 would 比 will 更婉转,客气。
    7.Shall、should 表示命令,警告,允诺,征求,劝告,建议,惊奇。
    8.have to,不得不,必须,表示客观条件只能如此,而must 则表示主观思想。

  • 情态动词功能:
    助动词主要有两类:基本助动词和情态助动词。
    基本助动词有三个:do,have和be;
    情态助动词基本的有十四个:may, might; can, could; will, would; shall, should; must, need, dare, used to, ought to.had better 上述两类助动词的共同特征是,在协助主动词构成限定动词词组时,具有作用词的功能:
    1) 构成否定式:
    He didn't go and neither did she.
    The meeting might not start until 5 o'clock.
    2) 构成疑问式或附加疑问式:
    Must you leave right now?
    You have been learning French for 5 years, haven't you?
    3) 构成修辞倒装:
    Nowhere can he obtain any information about his sister.
    Hardly had he arrived when she started complaining.
    4) 代替限定动词词组:
    A: Who can solve this crossword puzzle?
    B: Tom can.
    A: Shall I write to him?
    B: Yes, do.

    情态动词表推测的用法小结   
    (一)情态动词表推测的三种句式    
    1.在肯定句中一般用must (一定),may(可能),might /can, could(也许,或许)。   
    (1)He must/may/might know the answer to this question?    
              他一定/可能/也许知道这个问题的答案。   
    (2)It is cold in the room. They must have turned off the heating.   
              屋里很冷,他们肯定把暖气关了。    
    2. 否定句中用can’t / couldn’t(不可能), may not/might not (可能不)。   
    (1)It can’t/couldn’t be the headmaster. He has gone to America.  这不可能是校长,他去美国了。   
    (2)He may not/might not know the scientist. 他也许不认识那位科学家。   
    3. 疑问句中用can/could (能……?)。    
     (1)Could he have finished the task? 他可能把任务完成了吗?    
     (2)Can he be at home now?  他现在能在家吗?   
    注:以上三种句式中情态动词的语气按程度都是依次递减的。Might, could并非may, can的过去式,而表示语气较为委婉或可能性较小。   

    (二)情态动词表推测的三种时态   
    1. 对将来情况的推测,用“情态动词 + 动词原形”。    
    (1)She must / may / might / could arrive before 5.  5: 00 前她一定/可能/也许到。    
    (2)She must/may/might/could walk miles and miles among the hills without meeting anyone.   
               她一定/可能/也许会在山里一连走好几英里而遇不到一个人。   
    2. 对现在或一般情况的推测,用“情态动词 + be”,“情态动词 +be doing”或 “情态动词 + 动词原形”。    
    (1)He must / may / might / could be listening to the radio now. 他一定/可能/也许正在听收音机。   
    (2)He can’t ( couldn’t ) / may ( might ) not be at home at this time. 这个时候他不可能/可能不在家。   
    (3)Mr. Bush is on time for everything .How can ( could ) he be late for the opening ceremony ?   
              布什先生一向准时,这次开幕式他怎么可能迟到呢?    
    3.对过去情况的推测,用“情态动词 + have +过去分词”。   
    (1)It must / may / might / could have rained last night .The ground is wet.  地湿了,昨晚肯定/可能/也许下雨了。   
    (2)The door was locked. He can ( could ) not / may ( might ) not have been at home . 门锁着,他不可能/可能不在家。   
    (3)Can / Could he have gotten the book? 难道他找到书了吗?    
    注:情态动词 should /ought to表推测时,意为“想必会,理应……”但与“have +过去 分词”连用时,则又可构成虚拟语气意为“本应该做某事却没做”。 
    例如:   
    (4)It’s seven o’clock. Jack should/ought to be here at any moment.   
         现在七点钟了,杰克理应随时到达。(推测)   
    (5)She should / ought to have attended your birthday party, but she had to look  after her mother in hospital. (虚拟)   
    她本该出席你的生日晚会的,可是她得在医院照顾她妈妈。   
    (6)Tom should not /ought not to have told me your secret, but he meant no harm.   (虚拟)   
    汤姆本不该告诉我你的秘密,可是他并无恶意。
考点名称:被动语态
  • 语态:
    是动词的一种形式,它表示主语和谓语的关系。
    语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。
    如果主语是动作的执行者,或者是说动作是由主语完成的,要用主动语态;
    如果主语是动作的承受者,或者是说动作不是由主语而是由其他人完成的,则用被动语态。
  • 被动语态的构成:
    被动语态的基本结构:
    主语+be +过去分词(+by+动作的发出者)
    ① 一般现在时:am/is/are+过去分词
    如:Trees are planted every year.
    ② 现在进行时 am/is/are+ being +过去分词
    如:The road is being repaired. 
    ③ 现在完成时 have/has + been +过去分词
    如:The work has been finished.
    ④ 一般过去时 was/were + 过去分词
    如:The story was told by him.
    Many birds were killed last year.
    ⑤过去进行时 was/were+ being + 过去分词
    如: The new house was being painted when I got home.
    ⑥过去完成时 had +been+ 过去分词
    如: He told me that the work had been finished.
    ⑦一般将来时  will +be + 过去分词
    如:The problem will be discussed tomorrow.
    ⑧ 过去将来时 would/should +be +过去分词
    如: He said that the Christmas tree would be put up soon.
    ⑨情态动词的被动语态
    情态动词+ be +过去分词    
    如:The problem must be solved soon.
    Children should be taught to love animals.
  • 被动语态使用注意:
    1. 不及物动词无被动语态。 如:happen, break down, come out......
    What will happen in 100 years.
    The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.
    2. 有些动词用主动形式表示被动意义。 如: write, sell, ride.....
    This pen writes well.
    This new book sells well.
    3. 感官动词或使役动词使用省略to的动词不定式,主动语态中不带“to”,但变为被动语态时,须加上“to”。
    例:make somebody do something→somebody+ be +made to do something
    see somebody do something→somebody +be +seen to do something
    A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.→My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.
    The boss made the little boy do heavy work.→The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.
    4. 如果是接双宾语的动词改为被动语态时,直接宾语(物)作主语,那么动词后要用介词,这个介词是由与其搭配的动词决定。
    He gave me a book.→A book was given to me by him.
    He showed me a ticket.→A ticket was shown to me by him.
    My father bought me a new bike. →A new bike was bought for me by my father.
    5. 一些动词短语用于被动语态时,动词短语应当看作一个整体,而不能丢掉其中的介词或副词。
    We can’t laugh at him. →He can’t be laughed at by us.
    He listens to the radio every day. →The radio is listened to by him every day.
    The nurse is taking care of the sick man. →The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.
    构成be+done.
  • 主动句变为被动句所遵循的4个步骤:
    ①把原主动句中的宾语变为被动句的主语
    ②把动词变为被动形式即be +过去分词,并注意其人称和数随主语的变化,而动词的时态则保持不变。
    ③原主动句的主语如需要则放在by后面以它的宾格形式出现(注代词的宾格),如不需要则可省略。
    ④其它的成分(定语、状语)不变。

    不用于被动语态的情形:
    ①不及物动词没有被动语态
    这类动词有take place, happen, come about, break out, appear, disappear, last,  arise等。
    例如:A fire broke out during the night.
    ②某些静态动词不用于被动语态
    这类动词有have, lack, fit, hold, suit, resemble等。 
    例如:My shoes do not fit me.
    ③宾语为相互代词和反身代词时不用于被动语态
    例如:We should help each other.

    关于主动形式表示被动意义:
    ①系动词(如look, sound, smell, feel, taste, prove等)要用主动表被动,因为系动词为不及物动词,它们没有被动语态形式。
    例如:The building looks very beautiful.
    ②当open, close, shut, lock, move, read, wash, clean, cook, cut, wear, carry 等用作不及物动词且表示主语的某种属性时,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book sells well.
    ③有的动词本身含有被动意味,通常用主动形式来表示被动含义。
    例如:Her eyes filled with tears.
    ④不定式to blame, to let用作表语时,通常要用主动表被动。
    例如:Who is to blame?
    ⑤某些“be+形容词+to do”结构中的不定式通常要用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The book is difficult to understand.
    ⑥不定式用于某些动词(如have, have got, get, want, need等)的宾语后作定语时,如果不定式的逻辑主语就是句子的主语,通常用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:Do you have time to help us?
    ⑦在too...to do sth.和...enough to do sth. 这两个结构中,若主语与其后不定式为to do sth.被动关系,则该不定式通常用主动形式表示被动意义(有时也可直接用 被动式)。
    例如:The writing is too faint to read.
    ⑧be worth后的动名词要用主动表被动。
    例如:This movie is worth seeing.
    ⑨在need, want, require等少数表示“需要”的动词后的动名词用主动形式表示被动意义。
    例如:The house needs cleaning.

    表示“据说”的三类被动句型:
    ①It is said that...句式
    例如:It is said that thirteen is an unlucky number.
    ②There is said that...句式 
    例如:There is said to be plenty of oil off our coast.
    ③sb./sth.is said that...句式
    例如:Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cancer.
  • 被动语态各时态构成 :

    时态

    被动语态 

    一般现在时

    am/is/are+过去分词

    一般过去时

    was/were+过去分词

    现在进行时

    am/is/are being+过去分词

    过去进行时

    was/were being+过去分词

    一般将来时

    will be+过去分词

    过去将来时

    would be+过去分词

    现在完成时

    have/has been+过去分词

    过去完成时

    had been+过去分词

    情态动词

    情态动词be+过去分词

  • 情态动词的被动语态:
    一、理解含情态动词的被动语态的概念含情态动词的被动语态说明某个被动性动作所反映出的感情和态度。
    初中阶段可用于被动语态的情态动词有“can、may、must、need、should”等,
    分别表示“能够被……”,“可以被……”,“必须被……”,“需要被……“,应该被……”等。

    二、掌握含情态动词的被动语态的不同句式的变换方法含情态动词的被动语态的疑问句、否定句的变化均借助于情态动词完成。
    (一)一般疑问句直接将陈述句被动语态中的情态动词提前。如:
    Mustthisworkbedoneatonce?这项工作必须立即完成吗?
    Shouldyourhomeworkbefinishedbeforesix?你的家庭作业应在六点前完成吗?
    (二)特殊疑问句由疑问词加上一般疑问句被动语态构成。如:
    Whenmustthisworkbedone?这工作必须在什么时候完成?
    Wherecanthelostbookbefound?这本失踪的书能在什么地方被找到?
    (三)反意疑问句借助情态动词构成附加疑问部分。如:
    Thisbridgecanbebuiltnextyear,can'tit?这座桥明年能建成,是吗?
    Thisbookshouldn'tbetakenoutofthelibrary,shouldit?这本书不应被带出图书馆,是吗?
    (四)否定句在情态动词后面加上“not”或“never”即可,但“must”表“必要”时否定式为“needn't”。如:
    Thisworkneedn'tbedoneatonce.这项工作没必要立即做。Thisdustbinshouldn'tbeputhere.这个垃圾箱不应放在这儿。

    三、含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答含情态动词的被动语态的一般疑问句的回答应保留原情态动词,
    但“must”表“必须”时,其否定回答应用“needn't”、“need”表“必要”时,其肯定回答应用“must”。如:
    —Shouldmyexercisesbefinishedtoday?我的作业应在今天完成吗?
    —Yes,theyshould.是的,应在今天完成。(No,theyshouldn't.不,不应在今天完成。)
    —Musthisexercisebookbehandedinatonce?他的练习本必须立即上交吗?
    —Yes,itmust.是的,必须立即上交。(No,itneedn't.不,不必立即上交。)
    —Needhebeoperatedonatonce?他必须立即手术吗?
    —Yes,hemust.是的,他必须。(No,heneedn't.不,他不必。)

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